This page is a continuation
of the runic inscriptions contained in chapter 4 of Howling, I gathered
them, by Yves Kodratoff which
is Volume two of Nordic Magic Healing.
|51. Karstad Inscription
on a rocky wall (middle of the 5th century)
me, the foreigner
Second inscription (carved by another
Krause suggests the meaning both
of them (a feminine form of the inclusive we,
meaning together we two) but the meaning
is very uncertain.
|52. Kong Statuette (around 500? )
It is the statuette of a man, but the
inscription is indecipherable.
Moltke describes the same inscription,
and doesnt decipher it either.
|53. Körlin Bracteate (middle of the
'obstinate, bold one'
|54. Körlin Ring (middle of the 6th century)
Antonsen reads al
alu . He remarks that alu is written as which might be understood
also as a branch rune indicating the second rune (because
of the two small branches at the bottom left) of the first
aett (because of the small branch at the top right), that
is Uruz, thus completing the al to alu.
|55. Lekkende Bracteate
which could be interpreted as:
Odin takes his horse.
|56. Lellinge Bracteate
Without a doubt, a magical formula. I interpret
Sowelo alu, sun of magic, or victory
Moltke gives the same runic inscription
with the comment, "doubtless a doubled protective word.
On the Vadstena bracteate (Sweden) [see # 110 below],
we find the doubled sequence tuwatuwa as well together with
the runic alphabet."
Antonsen sees the feminine
name Salu twice, meaning 'offering'
|57. Lindholm bone Amulet (1st half of the
A: ek erilaR sa wilagaR ha(i)teka
B: aaaaaaaa RRR nnn[n] bmu ttt: alu
For A, sa = this one or here;
wilagaR = cunning, astute; haiteka
= I am called. Side A gives therefore:
Me, master of runes here, I am
called Astute (could be a name). Antonsen: 'the sunny, bright one'
Side B obviously contains a magical formula.
Using the same deciphering as # 22, each
repeated letter would call the rune itself and it would identify
the aett in the Futhark, then the number of repetitions would
identify which rune in the aett. With this hypothesis, Ansuz
(of the first aett) is repeated 8 times, which gives Gebo;
Algiz (of the second aett), repeated three times gives Isaz ;
Naudiz repeated four times gives Jeran ; and Tiwaz (of
the third aett), repeated three times gives Ehwaz. The message
would then be:
agRinjbmute : alu
It makes up a galdr whose meaning can not
be reconstructed other than by intuition, but it could represent
teaching in magic.
Moltke calls it the "Lindholmen bone
amulet". He refuses to "guess" the "i"
of "ha(i)teka" and he treats the translation of
the astute, for sa wilagaR as a "fatuous
interpretation" because the inscription does not cut
between sa and wilagaR (= sawilagaR). He translates it as :
I the eril am called SawilagaR, stating that one
can interpret this name as one lying on the sea.
remarks that the i
: of ha(i)teka
can be guessed reasonably since it can be the vertical bar
t : that follows.
|58. Moos Lance-head (1st half of the 3rd
As such this inscription has no particular
meaning, but if one reads it "right-to-left ", it
gives gaois, which means howler.
One can see an allusion to Odins "Howling, I gathered
them", which is also the title of this volume.
It is given without comment by Moltke.
|59. Myklebostad Stone (around 400)
asugasdiR [h]lai [wa]: aih[ek]
asugasdiR = ansu-gasdiR = a name, Asgest,
meaning Guest of the Aesir; hlaiwa = the
grave; aihek = I possess; soXX =? soma =
right; aXXi can not be understood; worumalaiba
= a name, Ormeleif (with doubt) whose meaning
would be the descendant of the snake. This can
be interpreted as Krause does:
Asgest. Grave. I have rights (on?)
Or, by keeping the meanings of the words:
The grave of the host of the Aesir.
I have rights (on?) the descendant of the snake.
This makes me think of kennings that I
do not know to interpret reasonably, but that seem more probable
than Krauses interpretation.
|60. Mogedal Stone (beginning of the 6th
loathsome. Antonsen: 'travelling one'.
|61. Möjbro Stone (middle of the 5th century)
frawaradaR ana hahai slaginaR
frawaradaR = frawa-radaR = fast decider;
ana = on; hahai = horse (dative);
slaginaR = beaten. This can interpret by:
Fast - Decider (could be a name)
beaten on the horse
which could be kind of epitaph.
Antonsen gives 'Advisor
of lords slain on (his) steed'
|62. Nebenstedt Bracteate 1
glļaugiR uļu rnR
glļaugiR = the one with the brilliant
eyes; uļu = wiju = I hallow; rnR = runoR
|63. Nedre Hov Scraper (1st half of the 4th
ek ad / / /
ek, me, is generally followed
by the name of the rune master which has been partially deleted
|64. Noleby Stone (around 600)
Side 1: runo fahi raginaku(n)do. tojeka
a rune I write coming from counselors.
Side 2: unažou: suhurah: susiX hwatin
the satisfaction: suhurah (=
magical formula): susiX (= magical formula) they can incite
Side 3: hakužo
these as a vultureAntonsen says that this word
has realtive in Old Swedish and Old English, meaning 'pike-fish'
The inscription says that the two magical
formulae start the magic for someone able to shape change
and become a vulture, in other words, a sorcerer.
Moltke only gives runo fahi raginaku(n)do and translates it as: The rune I paint, from ruling
|65. Nordhuglo Stone (Norway, 1st half of
the 5th century)
ek gudija ungandiR i h / / /
gudija is the word that designates a "goši"
in Iceland, what I call a "chief - priest" in this
book. ungandiR breaks down into un-, a privative prefix, and
gandiR, meaning bewitched.
Me, goši, not bewitched to H...
As this inscription is dated in the 5th
century, Paganism was still thriving and had many centuries
to enjoy in Norway when this inscription was made. Therefore
it is not because of a "christian spirit" that this
godi asserted that he was not bewitched.
Antonsen translates ungandiR
by 'not beatable' while noticing that Old Icelandic 'gandr'
means a charm (originally, a staff, a stick). He finds his
'unbeatable' by assimilating gandiR to the root '*gud' meaning
'battle', which I find very daring since 'gandr' exists.
|66. Norway Bracteate
A magical formula based on the word ana meaning
|67. Nydam Arrow-shaft (around 400)
A version of "alu".
Moltke speaks of a set of Nydam arrows.
One of them bears the inscription alu.
|68. Naesbjerg Fibula (around 200)
Possibly, a name meaning: "the one
who holds himself in front of the chatter" .
Moltke calls it "bow fibula",
reads the runes as warafnisa, and translates
them as "one wary of tittering, a man of gravity".
Antonsen reads warawnis
and translates 'caring friend'
|69. Novling Fibula (around 200)
bida = to demand, desire
warijaR = the one who protects; talgidai = I
have carved; bidawarijaR can be interpreted as the name,
Bidar, or by keeping the meaning:
The one who protects desires has
carved (these runes).
Moltke provides the same runes, but gives
Bidar has carved as the translation. He states
that the verb used, talgian, refers rather to working with
|70. Opedal Stone (1st half of the 5th century)
birgh guboro swestar minu liubu meR wage
There are two possible meanings in this
inscription, according to the way the first word is split
Grave-Bora, sister mine, love me
Has help, Yngbora, sister mine
dear, to me the audacity'
Krause specifies some linguistic problems
presented by the second version.
Antonsen remarks that
(a masculine dative form) has been obviously added later since
its direction is oblique as compared to the rest of the inscription.
He links this word to 'rough waters' and not to 'audacity'.
I conclude that there is no 'audacious love' in this inscription.
|71. Over-Hornbaek Bracteate 2
Xuža žit Xih uilald tXuiu uXtwX
uilald = work of art
For the rest, Krause declares that it is
an unintelligible inscription.
|72. Reistad Stone (2nd half of the 6th century)
Side 1: iužingaR
Iužing (a name with an unclear
contests that it is impossible to read a u here, he reads
idringaR : 'of memorable lineage'
Side 2: ek wakraR: unnam
me Woke (a name, meaning 'awake',
probably the one of the rune master): I know ('I understand
Side 3: wraita
'that which is engraved'
|73. Roes Stone (middle of the 8th century)
iu žin: udR rak
iu = horse; žin = this
one; udR = Udd (a name meaning "point"
); rak = pushed.
Udd pushed (incited) this horse.
|74. Rosseland Stone (middle of the 5th century)
ek wagigaR irilaR agilamu(n)don
The meaning of wagigaR is unsure, one possible
meaning is: the one who finds his way inside;
'the active one') irilaR
has the same meaning as erilaR, the master of runes;
agilamu(n)don is a name coming from Agilamundo,
which can be split into agila-mundo. Agila became the name
Egill, famous in the sagas because of Egill Skalagrimsson;
its root means "fright". Mundo can attach
to either mundr, gift from betrothed to his betrothed,
or mund, hand. In the end, the expression is ambiguous
protectress of the blade?).
'Me, Wagigar, master of the runes, (coming
either the master of the runes comes from
the region called Agilamundo, or he is the son of Agilamundo,
or he is at her service.
Moltke translates it as: "I WagigaR
eril of Agilamundo" and notes that Agilamundo is the
name of woman. That would show that some women could have
had an extremely respected position since they had an "eril"
at their disposition. He notes that Krauses translation
above is obviously also possible.
|75. Rävsal Stone (middle of the 8th century)
The Thurisaz rune could be interpreted
as a Wunjo since the two runes are so similar. The stone on
which this inscription is engraved is surrounded by others
stones that allow us to understand the meaning:
The stones of Hariwulf.
The name Hariwulf means the horde
Moltke insists on the reading of "ž",
without proposing a translation.
|76. Rö Stone (around 500)
Side 1: ek hraRaR satido [s]tain / / /
Me HaraRaR I have erected the stone
Side 2a: swabaharjaR
SwabaharijaR (a name)
Side 2b: anaXXXXr
Side 3: s[a]irawidaR
s[a]ira - widaR = injury-large
Side 4: [ek] stainawarijaR fahido:
me, StainwarijaR I have drawn (runes).
The complete inscription can therefore
Me Hararar, I have erected this
stone. SwabaharijaR (rests here) with deep injuries. Me,
StainwarijaR I have drawn (runes).
The meanings of the names found on this
inscription are as follows:
hraRaR = quiet; agile
(from Antonsen); swabaharjaR
= swaba-harijaR = swabian-group (a name) ; StainwarijaR
= Stain-warijaR = stone - protector
|77. Saude Stone (around 500)
A name, Wandaras, which means
the one who has struggled against
Antonsen gives the inscription
in words as:
[i.e. woe-counsellor] (monument)'.
|78. Schonen (or Skåne) Bracteate-1 (Skåne,
lažu laukaR. gakaR alu
gakaR is interpreted as gauka, the
Laukaz evocation. magic cuckoo
|79. Schonen Bracteate-5
Krause notes, as one possibility, that
one could see the rune Ehwaz being called here, which seems
clear enough to me.
Ehwu [i.e. mare]'.
(ehw-u, fem. nom.
|80. Schonen Bracteate 4
Krause suggests that the bound runes
read as eh
. Moreover, the last l could be read
as an e. The
whole thing would then read as e-ehe
where "ehe" means to the horse, which
gives a magical formula based on Ehwaz:
'Ehwaz to the horse'
|81. Seeland (or Sjęland) Bracteate 2
hariuha haitika: farauisa: gibu
Hariuah I am called: the dangerous
knowledgeable one: I give chance.
hariuha is a name whose meaning is not
clear; haitika = I am called; farauisa = fara-uisa = travel-wise;
gibu = I give; auja = chance. The final drawing:
can obviously be interpreted as a "magical tree"
but I believe instead that it must be seen (in the runic context)
as a triple Tiwaz linked to itself, in the sense that the
hat of Tiwaz is repeated twice again along the
length of the shaft. (Antonsen supports this interpretation
and calls it a triple t.)
I am called Hariuha: travel wise:
I give chance: Tiwaz (three times).
This one is called the Sjaelland bracteate
by Moltke who translates farauisa as one who is wise
|82. Selvik Bracteate
Interpreted by Krause as tauju, I
|83. Setre Comb (beginning of the 7th century)
Side 1: hal maR || mauna:
Greetings young girl || of the
(between the) young girls
Side 2: alu na alu nana:
Magic Na, magic Nana
Nana is the name of Baldrs wife.
I suppose that this is a "true" formula of seduction,
I bewitch Na, I bewitch Nana.
Moltke notes that archaeology dates this
piece in the 7th century, and he considers it incomprehensible.
|84. Sivern Bracteate
Interpreting the l as a t (Laukaz and
Tiwaz certainly look alike), gives: runoR writu = runes
I have written
|85. Skodborg Bracteate
auja alawin, auja alawin, auja
alawin, j alawid
Chance Alawin, Chance Alawin, Chance
Alawin, Happy New Year Alawid!
The isolated j is taken as the rune
Jeran meaning good year. In the names, ala
means all, win means friend,
and wid means large
. Thus, another interpretation is:
Chance with you, friend in all,
(3 times) Let the year be propitious with you in all!
The alliterations in the original poem
are certainly very important and "activate" the
magic of the runes.
|86. Skonager Bracteate 3
niuwila || lžu
Name meaning novice, little newcomer; lžu = lažu = invocation.
Moltke gives the same runes without a translation.
|87. Skrydstrup Bracteate
laukaR || alu
Laukaz || magic
Moltke gives the same inscription, without
|88. Skaang Stone (around 500)
harija = the troop, the
band; leugaR = joined of their own free will.
Independent troop of men.
Moltke sees a name in harija, Harija, and in
word whose root is deceived, lied as in German
'lügen.' Antonsen reads both
as a name and he translates them as follows:
[=warrior] (monument). Leugaz [=oath-taker] (erected it).
|89. Stärkind Stone (middle of the 5th century)
skižaleubaR = skinža - leubaR = fur
- the one who likes. Antonsen: 'the one who loves
|90. Stenstad Stone (middle of the 5th century)
halaR = the stone; igijon can
be to be taken as a name: Igja, as i(n)gijon =
of Ingwi (Ingwis) = of the lord (name also given to
Igjaes stone, or the
lords stone, or Freys stone.
insists on the feminine ending of igijon.
He translates: 'Ing's daughter' which leads me to believe
that the inscription means actually 'Freya's stone', as explained
in my presentation of the rune Ingwaz.
|91. Stentoften Stone (middle of the 7th
I 1: nihua borumR
new (acc.), son
I 2: nihua gestumR
'new (acc.), guest
I 3: hažuwolafR gaf j
combat - wolf' (a name), gave
I 4: hariwolafR (m)aXXu s nu h(l)e
herd-wolf (a name), (m)aXXu s
= ?; nu = now; hle = treasure
I 5: hideR runono felaheka hed / / era ginoronoR
I 6: heramalasaR arageu weladud sa žat / / bariutiž
For I1-I4, Krause translates:
The new peasant (?), the new guest
gave a good year to Half, Herjolf now... a treasure.
For I5-I6, one notices the quasi - identity
with the south side inscription of the Bjöketorp stone:
B1: haidRruno ronu
B2: falahak haidera g
B3: inarunaR arageu
B5: uti aR weladaude
B6: saR žat barutR
Aside from the slight differences in vocabulary,
and by noting that the Bjöketrop stone is slightly younger
than the Stentoften stone (2nd half of the 7th century), it
is impossible that the Bjöketorp rune master ignored the Stentoften
inscription. Since the two inscriptions are almost identical,
it is interesting to note the inversion: Stentoftens
"heramalasaR arageu" becomes "arageu haeramalausR"
in the Bjöketorp.
If the dating were the opposite, one would
say, without hesitating, that the Stentoften rune master wanted
to correct the ambiguity of the Bjöketorp rune master by avoiding
the possible interpretation "ginoronoR arageu".
Conversely, since the dating forbids this interpretation,
I see only one possibility, and it is that the Bjöketorp rune
master wanted to introduce this ambiguity.
Moltke translates: To the??? dwellers,
to the??? guests Hadulv gave "year" (a fruitful
year, prosperity). Haerulv??? - I master of the runes (?)
bury here potent runes. With no cessation of sorcery, a malevolent
guile's death for the man who breaks it (the memorial)!
He also comments on the word argr, translating
it by "to go soft, perverse". Contrary to my own
interpretation, which is that practicing magic became synonymous
with sexual perversion (which is what the scholars say, meaning
homosexuality), as explained in volume 1, chapter 3, Moltke
supposes that being called argr means to practice magic. It
is hard to understand then, why such a malediction would be
involved in these inscriptions.
|92. Strand Fibula (around 700)
sikli = fibula, necklace;
na-hli = death-protection
This fibula is a protection against death.
|93. Strarup Neckring (around 400)
Moltke thinks that it is the name of the
woman who owned the diadem.
|94. Strom Whetstone (around 600)
A: wate hali hino horna:
dampen the stone this horn
B: haha skaži, hažu ligi
I-want-to-cause-pain, the-one-who-is-beaten I-want-to-lay-down.
A: This horn moistens the stone.
B: I cause pain to the freshly
cut grass, I want to lay down the ones that have been been
In a rare style, this inscription describes
the reapers work.
Antonsen provides a rather
poetical version: 'Wet this stone, horn! Scathe, scythe! Lie,
that which is mown down!'
|95. Sunde Stone (around 500)
widu = of the forest; gastiR
|96. Svarteborg Medallion (middle of the
Krause prudently lets the initial double
"s" fall, and translates it as "Siegfried".
s = Sowelo, sun or victory, sigaduR = sigi-haduR
= victory - combat. This makes ssigaduR a very early "Sieg
heil", an interpretation that Krause could not allow
without pleasing the Nazis a bit too much. I believe that
one can now interpret it without fear:
Sun, victory in the combat!
Antonsen refuses to read
the two s at the beginning as runes, he claims they are simple
"embellishment". He translates then igaduR
as a name: Ingaduz.
|97. Sonder Rind Bracteate
Friend me interpreted as:
Antonsen reads: uigiRik
which gives: 'Wigiz' [i.e., Fighter]
|98. Tanem Stone (around 500)
Marilihu, a feminine name
(of a rune master?), a derivative of mari- meaning
[i.e., female descendant of Marila]
|99. Thorsberg Chape [a
metal piece from the sheath of a sword]
o = Othala = property inherited;
wlžu = wulžu = of the God Ull: žewaR = servant
B: ni wajemariR:
ni = negative form; waje - mariR = evil-doer
Property inherited. WulžužewaR
(The servant of Ull) without a bad reputation.
One could compare this with the name of
the first God found on the Ribe cranium: ulfuR, which conveys
the meaning of wolf (see, for instance, with Anglo-Saxon ulf
= wulf = wolf, Old Norse ulfr = wolf), but ulžuR, though very
similar, belongs to the root wulžu- (shining) which gave the
Gothic wulžus = splendour and the Old Norse name,
Called the Torsbjerg Sword-chape by Moltke
who suggests that, in owlžužewaR, the o is read as a w, and the w as a u. Moltke also says that Wulžu = a God named "Ull".
For the second line, Moltke says that two translations are
possible. One is as Krause gives. The second one considers
ni waje as 'do not spare',
and then the name of the sword would be MariR
('do not spare, Marir').
Antonsen translates as
Krause: 'Wolžužewaz [i.e., servant of Ullr] of immaculate
|100. Thorsberg Shield-boss (around 200)
ais(i)g(a)R = the one who struggles
inside himself; h = Hagala
Krause does not give an interpretation.
Hagala is the rune that knocks, that breaks. The shield-boss
is there to avoid this and it contains in itself this force
that struggles against Hagala. One can also compare it with
the Kragehul lance where Hagala is described as breaking helmets.
I suggest this translation:
(This shield) struggles inside
itself (against) Hagala.
Moltke notices that the inscription is
on the inside of the boss, making it invisible when the boss
was in place. Moltke sees it as a magical formula; he says,
"a pure swindle, aimed at hood-winking credulous customers."
He also wonders why the rune-master did not use a classical
alu or laukaR.
It seems the rune-master invented a formula
specific to this shield-boss which is hard to understand nowadays,
as it should be.
Antonsen, like Krause, does attempt
to insult the rune-master, he sees in aisgR the root of many
words, e.g., Old English 'ascian', meaning 'to ask' with the
special undertone of challenging. He translates: 'Challenger
of the hail'. Comparing with the Kragehul lance, this makes
perfect sense for a shield-boss. The swindling seen by Moltke
might be real for a pure rationalist, who is now blinded by
his/her own rationality from understanding a world drenched
|101. Tjurkö Bracteate
wurte runoR an walhakurne. heldaR
wurte = it activated; runoR
= runes; an = on; walhakurne = walha-kurne
= foreigner-seed = gold; heldaR =
the fighter; kunimu(n)diu = kunja-mundiu = sex
(or family, or gender)-protector
(dative singular). Krause gives:
HeldaR of Kuminundi has activated
the runes on gold.
By interpreting the names (and by choosing
warrior for hledaR):
'The fighter, the protector of the family,
has activated the runes on gold'
and Antonsen give an equivalent translation to Krauses.
Antonsen's more poetic version might be of interest to the
reader: 'The runes on the foreign-grain [i.e., gold] wrought
Heldaz [i.e., battler] for Kunimunduz [i.e., protector of
|102. Tomstad Stone (around 500)
/// an : waruR
is the end of a partially deleted name; waruR is a protection
made of stones, a stone mound protecting a grave.
'NNa's enclosure [i.e., monument of more than one stone]'
|103. Trollhättan Bracteate
I prepare the invocation.
(Antonsen: '(I) prepare the invitation')
|104. Tu Fibula (end of the 5th century)
žiri. d[až]XX / / /
this one. For the action (?)
|105. Tune Stone (Norway around the year
Side A-1: ek wiwaR after. woduri
Side A-2: de wita (n) da-halaiban: worahto: r / / /
Side B-1: ///R woduride: staina
Side B-2: žrijoR dohtriR dalidun
Side B-3: arbij(a) arjosteR arbijano
ek = me; wiwaR = a name meaning
the darting one ; after = after; woduride
is the dative of woduridaR = rider of the fury;
wita(n)da = the one who keeps watch; halaiban
= the bread; worahto = I have activated
(made active); for ///R, Krause suggests either meR, or žriR,
and I prefer personally žriR = three, which fits
better with the rhythm of the poem (alliterations and systematic
repetitions); staina = the stone (accusative);
žrijoR = three; dohtriR = sisters;
dalidun = have prepared, have divided;
arbij (a) = inheritance (singular accusative);
arjosteR = the most elegant; arbijano = inheritance
Krause translates it as follows:
Me Wiw after Wodurid / to (my) Brotwart, I have activated
... to Wodurid the stone / three sisters have prepared
/ the inheritance (but) the most elegant of inheritances.
Keeping the meanings of the names, and
making the hypothesis that they have prepared the stone, and
the inheritance (in other words the destiny), I prefer the
Me, servant after the rider of the poetical fury,
for the guardian of the bread I have made the runes active.
Three, to the rider of the trance, the stone / the
three sisters they have prepared / what he had in inheritance,
the most elegant of destinies.
Moltke quotes this inscription only in
passing, and says that it talks about an inheritance.
is very similar to Krause.
|106. Tveito Stone (7th century)
happy, or tender,
or terrible (Antonsen:
The stone was found on a grave.
|107. Torvika Stone A (beginning of the 5th
landa = free space, country;
dawarijaR = the one who protects.
'the protector of the country'
|108. Torvika Stone B (end of the 5th century)
Xežro dwen gk
Xežro = hežro = from here;
dwen = distance-yourself; gk = Gebo
Krause says that the meaning of this inscription
is not very clear. I interprets it as:
Go from here, (you who) gives boils
|109. Utgard stone Amulet (middle of the
Ehwaz and Ansuz,
as in the Lekkende Bracteate (# 55).
|110. Vadstena Bracteate
luwa-tuwa. fužarkgw: hnijļprs:
It ends therefore by a Futhark (where we
can see that Othala precedes Dagaz) and where the three "aetts"
are very well marked.
luwa-tuwa is clearly a magical formula, where luwa means on earth
and tuwa to the sky. (Antonsen does
not interpret luwa-tuwa)
On earth and to the sky, the Futhark.
|111. Valsfjord Cliff Inscription (around
ek hagustaldaR žewaR godagas
Me, bachelor (= young warrior) servant
(or man of the retinue) good day (genitive, a name).
Me, the warrior, belonging to the
retinue of GodagaR.
Moltke prefers to see hagustaldaR as a name.
translates: 'I, Hagustaldaz [i.e., young warrior], servant
of Godadaz [i.e, goody, the good one]'
|112. Vatn stone (around 700)
Side A: rhoaltR:
a name taken from hrožu-waldaR that could
mean governor of the celebrity" .
Side B: faiXX / / /
fai =? faihido = I wrote
|113. Veblungsnes Cliff Inscription (around
ek irilaR wiwila
Me the master of runes Wiwila.
Wiwala also means small servant.
Moltke reads it as wiwilan and translates: I eril of Wiwila.
|114. Vetteland Stone (middle of the 4th
C 1: /// flagda-faikinaR ist:
Female troll threatening is
C 2: /// magoR minas staina:
son (gen. sing.), mine
(gen. sing.), the stone (acc. sing.)
C 3: /// daR faihido
a partially deleted name, then faihido
= I have written
(this place?) is threatened by
a monster - (Me, NN I raised) my sons gravestone -
(Me, NN) I have drawn (runes).
Instead of monster, I think
that it is much better to keep the expression female
troll that is found in the sagas and in the poem Beowulf.
Antonsen gives the Old Icelandic 'flagš'
meaning 'troll-woman'. He refers also to Old Icelandic 'flaga':
'attack', Old High German 'fluohhan': 'to curse', and Old
English 'flocan': 'to strike'. For faikinaR he refers
to Old High German 'feihhan', Old Saxon 'fekn', Old English
'facen', all three meaning: 'deceitful', and to Old Icelandic
Following these linguistic relationships,
I prefer to translate flagdafaikinaRist by: '... is a deceitful female-troll.
|115. Vimose Woodplane (end of the 3rd century)
Side A: talijo gisai oj: wiliR XXla oXXX
Side B: tkbis: hleuno: anX: regu
This inscription poses several problems.
It dates from the end of the 3rd century and the
k of tkbis is
written as the k of the Younger Futhark.
Many words are incomprehensible.
The only words that Krause is able to understand
are: talijo = plane; wiliR = you want;
hleuno = means of protection. It is not enough
to give a global meaning to the inscription.
Moltke dates it to the year 200, and only
understands the word, talijo = plane.
Antonsen relates talijo to Old High German 'zellen', Old English 'tellan', Old
Icelandic 'telja', all three meaning: 'to tell' (as in 'telling
a tale'). wiliR relates to Old High German 'wili', Old English
'wilt', Old Icelandic 'vill', all three meaning: 'will'. Interestingly,
he sees in hleuno the Proto-Germanic root '*hleun-non' meaning 'fame'
or 'protection' feminine nominative singular. That he does
not see here the name of a woman is a mystery for me since
runologists precisely tend to jump on the interpretation "a
name". The other words of the inscription, he does not
succeed interpreting. Taking into account Antonsen's translation,
I suggest the following: 'Telling a tale ... you wish ...
Hleuno [meaning: she-fame, or protectress]'
|116. Vimose Comb (middle of the 3rd century)
A name that is close to harija = the
troop, the group, 'the army'.
Moltke simply says that Harja is certainly
the name of the owner of the comb.
|117. Vimose Chape (middle of the 3rd century)
SideA: mariha || iala
Side B: makija
Mariha has a questionable meaning, Krause
interprets it as mari (a name = the famous) ;
ha =? hai =? aih = owned'; iala =? the name of the sword
or an owner of the sword, a
masculine name, Alli or Alla; makija = the sword. Either:
Mari (or The famous) has possessed
Alli, (his) sword. Or:
Alli (sends) to Mari a sword.
Moltke says that the archaeology dates
it around the year 250-300, and that the only thing that is
certain is that the inscription mentions a sword and "famous".
place of mariha,
Antonsen sees marida,
and he cuts the inscription differently as follows:
maridai means 'has decorated' and ala the same name as in
Krause. This gives: 'Alla has decorated the sword'.
|118. Vimose Buckle (around 200)
Side 1: aadagasu =? Ansuz-a(n)dag-a(n)su
Side 2: laasauwija =? la-a(n)sau-wija
a = rune Ansuz; adag =? andag = a name,
meaning: meditative, pious; ansula = the
small Aesir; ansau = Aesir (dative); wija
= wiju = I hallow. Krauses translation:
Aesir! Andag (the pious) I devote,
the small Aesir, to the Aesir
It could also be said as in a galdr:
Ansuz! pious, (me,) Small - Aesir,
hallow to the Aesir
Moltke does not give an interpretation
for these runes, other than to say he suspects that whoever
wrote them did not know what he was doing. I
must confess that I find this way of scorning what is not
understood slightly irritating. Antonsen provides a very clear
interpretation. He reads aadagast
in place of aadagasu,
which leads to the words: aada = eminent, extreme; gast =
guest; laas = lack (of); wija = luck, thus translating: 'Andogast
[i.e., eminent guest] lack-luck' which makes perfect sense
if, for instance, the buckle was a gift to an "eminent
guest" that was to be murdered later, not an impossible
situation if referred to Snorri's Heimskringla ("The
Lives of the Norse Kings").
|119. Vimose Sheathplate (end of the 3rd
A name meaning 'grandfather'
Moltke feels that the inscription is not
runic at all.
descendent of Awa]'.
|120. Vanga Stone (around 500)
A name meaning the one who acts
like a vulture.
[i.e. croucher, hunchback]'.
|121. Vaerlose Fibula (around 200)
A name, meaning good magic
Moltke specifies that this fibule comes
from a womans grave. He supposes that space was limited
(the inscription stops at a swastika that seems to be earlier
than the runes), and so the complete inscription should have
been alugodo, a womans
name, owner of the fibule.
|122. Väsby Bracteate
uuigaR eerilaR f[a]hidu uuilad
uuigaR = wigaR = the warrior
(here, a name); eerilaR = ek erilaR = me, the master
of runes; f [a]hidu = fahido = I wrote;
uuilad = wila(l)d = work of art.
The warrior (or a name), master
of runes, I wrote the work of art.
Moltke gives a similar meaning, but with
runes less clearly read, and in a different order:
Antonsen gives the following
runes, citing the Äskatrop bracteate at the same time:
[wrote] . . . igaz I, the erilaz'.
|123. Ars Bracteate 2 (450-550)
Moltke gives these runes without comment.
|124. Arstad Stone (middle of the 6th century)
Side 1: hiwigaR
either the one from this homeland
Side 2: sar alu
Side 3: uh winaR
young friend (a name)
Hiwig here magic - Ungwins (is
one with strong familial ties]. (For?) Saralu [i.e. protectress].
I, for my friend [i.e. spouse] . . . .'
He cites the following
ekwinai . . .
nom. (dat?) sg., meaning protectress; ek,
1st sg. nom.
pers. Pronoun I; winai, fem. dat. sg. wife
|125. Asum Bracteate
ehe. ik akaR fahi
ehe = dative singular of eh(w)aR, the
horse; akaR = a name meaning the one who rides;
fahi = I write
To the horse, me Rider I write.
Mare. I, Akaz
[i.e. leader], the suitable . . . '.
ehu, fem. nom.
sg., mare (female horse)
|126. Olst Bracteate
hag =? hagala: Hagala magic
nom. pl., hailstones
|127. Ovre Stabu Lance (end of the 2nd century)
The one who puts (someone) to the
Moltke dates the inscription to the second
half of the second century.
from the first period that were discovered after Krause's
The only two very ancient inscriptions
found after Krauses death can be found in Moltkes
book. They are :
|128. Illerup lance-heads (dated AD 200)
Both blades bear a man's name:
ojingaR, and one of them in relief, meaning that it had been made
with a stamp. This strongly suggests that it is an armorers
|129. Meldorf fibula (dated to
the first century, 50-100, which makes it the oldest runic find)
It was found in 1979 and is said to be
a spring-case fibula. The inscription was not translated.
Some modern runolgists doubt that it is runic at all.