Here is the  order in which the poems are studied:

(in black: done, in red: still to do)

Lokasenna, Völuspá, Hávamál, Völundrarkviđa, VafŢrúđnismál, Grímnismál,  Grípisspá,  Reginsmál (SigurŢarkviđa Fafnisbana Önnur),  Fáfnismál, Sigrdrífumál, Sigurđarkviđa in skamma, Guđrúnarkviđa in forna, Guđrúnarkviđa in fyrsta, Oddrúnarkviđa (Oddrúnargrátr), Atlakviđa (Dauđi Atla), Atlamál in grćnlenzku, Grógaldr, Fjölsvinnsmál, Hrafnagaldr Óđins.

Poetic Edda is our main source of knowledge on örlög[1]  but it often uses two other words: sköp, relatively more frequent in the sagas, and rök[2]. Less often, destiny is called urđr, which is also Norn Urđr’s name. We will meet several examples of it.


On sköp: The neutral substantive skap indicates the state or the mood of a person. But it is also associated to verb skapa which means ‘to shape’. This is why its plural, sköp took the meaning of ‘shapingsi.e. of all what shaped our life, our fate. In the following, I will keep the Norse word örlög which is well-known or I will translate it if necessary into English by ‘destiny’ or ‘fate’. The word sköp, conversely, is quasi unknown and I will systematically translate it by “shapings” in order to distinguish it from destiny.

Our life takes its course during such shapings. They are carried out, with more or less softness, by our parents, our friends, our passions. When you mother softly explains that “you should not behave in this way…” she gently shapes you. When a wizard “casts a spell,” when someone is tortured, both wizard and torturer carry out brutish shapings. In the following, we will slowly access these principles of Heathen spirituality and will look further into the difference between örlög and sköp.

I have to add here a few words about the preterit of verb skapa, skóp (he shaped) that shows 8 times in the Poetic Edda. We will meet below four of them and the others instances are always found either describing a magical shaping or in the impressive context of the World creation. The only example which might refer to a material shaping is in Völuspá s 7, where the gods “tangir skópu (they shaped tongs),” though the materiality of such tongs could be disputed…


On rök: this word became famous because of ragna-rök, the gods’ rök that Snorri Sturluson (and more recently, Wagner) understand as being the word rökkr or rökr: darkness, twilight. Other sources (among Poetic Edda) led the experts to understanding rök (it is then a plural without singular) as being: causes, signs, alignments, explanations, the course of things, fate. The multiplicity of these meanings does not enable to learn a clear lesson on the nature destiny in the ancient Germanic world. We will quote only 3 rather characteristic examples, drawn from Lokasenna 25 where we see how Frigg understands this word, of Hávamál 145 and VafŢrúđnismál 42 where Óđinn uses it (see these stanzas below).

We still find two words that can translate as ‘fate’.

Mjötuđr is the “measure giver” (the ‘orchestra director’) that we meet three times in the Poetic Edda, always with the same meaning as urđr.

Auđna (luck) met in Atlamál in grćnlenzku, s. 98. This word evokes ‘luck’ in the meaning of ‘stroke of luck’.

[1] (řrlƍg, plural of řrlag – lag is a layer), that is a structure defining a  vertical ordering.

[2] rök is perhaps linked to singular rak :  rakings, or to rák : a streak, i. e.  a horizontal ordering. I do not believe useful to fantasize on this spatial difference but it is interesting to note that both define an ordered structure.



Stanza 21

Óđinn kvađ:

Ćrr ertu, Loki,

ok örviti,

er ţú fćr ţér Gefjun at gremi,

ţví at aldar örlög

hygg ek, at hon öll of viti

jafngörla sem ek.


Óđinn said:

Mad are you, Loki

et not-clever

that you bring to you Gefjon in wrath

because humankind’s örlög,

think I, to her all of knowledge,

equally-clearly as I (do).



Aldar is the genitive of öld = a great duration of time, an age. In poetry this word takes the meaning of humankind/the people/all existing beings.

This stanza, with the 29th below, justifies the belief in the fact that Gefjon, Frigg and Óđinn know everyone’s örlög.


 Stanza 25

Frigg kvađ:


Örlögum ykkrum

skyliđ aldregi

segja seggjum frá,

hvat it ćsir tveir

drýgđuđ í árdaga;

firrisk ć forn rök firar.


Frigg says:


Of örlög to you both

You should never

tell humankind among,

what you , Ćsir twofold,

you committed at times ancient;

Let (them) avoid for ever old deeds, human ones.


The reflexive form of verb firra, firra-sk, means ‘to avoid/flee, here in the subjunctive: firrisk.

Loki has criticized just before, in s. 24, some of Óđinn’s behavior and Frigg recommends to Loki to avoid speaking either of Óđinn’s örlög or of his own. This the first time he get the advice to forget the things of the past. Boyer skillfully translates: “What belongs to the past has to remain in the past” but this translation does not renders the idea that the gods seek to hide truth from human people.

Frigg textually states here these old stories could better stay unspoken. The need to hide “what everyone knows but that nobody says” is clearly rejected by Loki who goes on disclosing without restraint the gods’ past. Besides, Loki’s answer to Frigg comes at once: in stanza 28 he will declare: “I am the reason for which you cannot anymore see Baldr riding in the halls.” This is a claim that he has been twice accountable of Baldr’s death: once by pushing Höđr to kill him, twice by refusing to shed tears at his disappearance.



 Stanza 29

Freyja kvađ:

Ćrr ertu, Loki,

er ţú yđra telr

ljóta leiđstafi;

örlög Frigg

hygg ek at öll viti,

ţótt hon sjálfgi segi.


Freyja says :

Mas are you u, Loki

that you to both say

ugly hateful-‘things’;

örlög Frigg

think I in all is known

though she not-herself speaks (of it).


As in stanza 25, line 2 alludes here to the dialogue of two persons by using the case dative of ‘thou’ in the plural = ‘with you’.

Loki has insulted Frigg in s. 28 and Freyja recalls him again, Frigg did in s. 25 that some things must remain unknown. It is obvious that Loki is the one who insist in revealing unpleasant truths to the gods and he obstinately refuses to be keep silent.

Lines 3 uses the form leiđr-stafr = hateful-stafr. The word stafr means a staff and it is also used to designate a staff carrying carved runes, i.e. a runic inscription. Since Nornes carve the örlög in runes, it is not surprising to understand this word as runes, and to speak ofhateful runes”. In opposition, I voluntarily translated stafr by ‘things’ to stress that this translation is obviously possible. Boyer adopts a median position by translating by “hateful charms” whereas Dronke translates it by “hatefulnesses” and Orchard by “horrible deeds”. This illustrates the tendency of the American school to systematically refuse to evoke magic in their interpretations, whenever this does not produce nonsense.

It should also be noted that Freyja words “hon sjálfgi segi (she herself do not speak” could be interpreted as Frigg being unable to speak about örlög. The last lines of s. 25 indicates that she avoids speaking of it because it is better for human kind to “firrisk ć (avoid always)” this knowledge, when related to either the past or the future.



A (slight) digression in parallel to örlög:

the gods wish to hide the ‘past’ örlög to humankind.


The stanzas we have just studied obviously shows that the gods do not wish to inform humankind of its örlög and we come back to this in conclusion. Giving a piece of his mind to the gods seems to me such a recurrent in Loki’s behavior that it should be also underlined.


Stanza 27

Frigg kvađ:

Veiztu, ef ek inni ćttak

Ćgis höllum i

Baldri líkan bur,

út ţúkvćmir

frá ása sonum,

ok vćri ţá at ţér vreiđum vegit.

Frigg says :

Know-you, if here I had

Ćgir’s hall into

Baldr similar son,

outside you could not come

from the Ćsir sons

and he would to you angrily carried/have fought/have killed.


The verb kóma, to come, does kvćmi in the imperfect of the subjunctive.

The form of language used by Frigg looks complicated because it uses ‘to come outside’ for ‘getting out’ and subjunctive imperfect, a much used verbal tense in Norse. She simply says: “You could not have left.”

Vegit: neutral past participle of vega = carry/fight/slaughter. It seems that the three meanings cohabit in Frigg’s mouth because she unhappy/aggressive/murderous in front of Loki’s arrogance. In the following stanza, he will take pleasure in stating that he is the very one who caused that “she does not see any more Baldr riding in the halls,” i.e. he has been twice responsible for its death: by pushing Höđr to kill him and by refusing to cry at his disappearance.

Considering the ambiguity of vega, we does not know exactly what Frigg wishes, that the Ćsir’s sons anger falls on Loki, or that they fight him, or that they slaughter him. The death threat uttered by Frigg is also ambiguous and it is related to Baldr’s murder. The primary cause for setting Loki in a state of everlasting torture is Baldr’s killing. His outspokenness might become unbearable but the Ćsir them would not have gone until his de facto elimination (even if he does not die ‘totally’) without Baldr’s murder.




From all this arguing, comes out the idea that there is an ‘örlög of the past’, which is not included in our word ‘destiny’, is obvious for the gods. When Gefjon, Óđinn and Frigg are said to know all the örlög, this implies that they know the past as well as the future. In other words, Germanic destiny or shapings, is not associated to time passing and the future, it looks as a temporal block belonging to present time endlessly attached to what it shapes and within all segments of time. This strengthens my refusal to see each of the three Norns representing one of these segments of time we call past, present and future (see the comment of Völuspá stanza 20 HERE  )

In fact, as stanza 20 also says, the Norns write the örlög and “writings remain” i.e. what has been written will exist independently of time. On the contrary, “words fly away.” This adds up to the arguments given in stanza 20: the last line cannot carry “at segja which means that they speak the örlög: a örlög stated only will be gone with the first blow of time.




See Volusp17-20AND31







See OrlogHavaEng










The comments given here refer to Völundarkviđa various episodes.

If you do not remember the details on this poem; I recommend to read the illustrated tale the text of which I wrote: 

"the tale of Völund ".

Stanza 1

Meyjar flugu sunnan,

myrkviđ í gögnum,

alvitr unga,

örlög drýgja;


The maidens fled (from) South,

dark-wood through,

full of wisdom (was) a young one,

örlög to endure/carry out/commit;


Adverb í followed by a dative = ‘to be inside’ or ‘going through’.

C.V. gives “to commit, perpetrate, especially in a pejorative direction, for example, drýgja hórdóm = ‘commit’ prostitution. The translators have, in the case of örlög drýgja, selected: “to try one’s luck.” deVries does not give this meaning but the ones of ‘to carry out/endure’ which are thus closer to the etymological meaning of this verb. Lex.Poet. gives the basic meaning of facere = to achieve, and adds a great number of examples showing that, as in English, it can take several possible meaning, going from ‘to indulge’ or ‘to endure’ until ‘to perpetrate’'. It thus seems that C.V.’s “especially pejorative” meaning is not as obvious as it states, especially in poetry.


Stanza 3

sjö vetr at ţat

en inn átta

allan ţráđu

en inn níunda

nauđr um skilđi;

meyjar fýstusk

á myrkvan viđ,

alvitr unga,

örlög drýgja.

Seven winters at that (they remained)

but the eighth one

in all they longed

but the ninth

need split (them);

the maidens wished (to go)

towards dark-wood,

full of wisdom (was) a young one,

örlög to endure/carry out/commit.

Adverbe á followed by an accusative means ‘towards’.

Verb skulu (shall) does skyldi in the preterit. It is more probable, however, that skilđi is the normal preterit of verb skilja (divide, split/discern/understand).

The words nauđ and nauđr mean ‘need’. This is the name of rune Naudiz (Nauđ in Norse). In our description of each Norne charge (see stanza 20 of Völuspŕ), it would be thus Norn Skuld who is implied in the maidens’ departure. I understand that a person indifferent to runes will find this remark stretchy. On another hand, I cannot imagine how an old Scandinavian knowledgeable in rune magic could be unaware of this hint.

In the last line, we find back verb drýgja. There is no need to make its meaning more precise here.




From the point of view of örlög, the behavior of the girls confirm the idea already presented that the örlög is binding on you like a need.  It is besides necessary to assume it without cowering. It should be noticed that these ‘maidens’ are divine beings “coming from the south” and they are certainly subjected to örlög although divine, as shown in Lokasenna above.

Moreover, the singular “alvitr unga,” in the next to last line of the two quoted stanzas, can imply a, ‘each’ i.e. “each is very wise and young.” To say that they are wise is to say that they are knowledgeable, particularly in magic. We can then understand why they can be informed of their örlög and thus be able to know if they are or not assuming it.


The use of the verb drýgja to speak about the completion of their  destiny deserves a few precise comments. First of all, we point out that drýgja has already been used by Frigg who, in Lokasenna s. 25, speaks in Loki about "hvat it to ćsir to tveir drýgđuđ í árdaga; (what you, the double of the Ćsir, committed in the olden days)” as being part of Loki’s örlög.

Before pondering whether these madens are or nor ‘Lokian’, we will examine the uses of the verb drýgja in the Poetic Edda.


Atlamál in grćnlenzku   

s. 45 "hvat úti drýgđu, which has ‘happened’ outside" and what happened is the massacre of a guest, therefore to translate here drýgđu by ‘committed’ is completely valid.

s.86 Guđrún announces to Atli that she has just killed their children.

It announces his intention to him to kill her in return and he adds: drýgt ţú fyrr hafđir… (committed you before have…)".


Völuspá S. 35

Askr Yggdrasils drýgir erfiđi The ash Yggdrasill endures a suffering…   

Hárbarđsljóđ S. 48   

Hárbarđr told Ţórr that his wife maintains a lover at home and that when it returns "ţann muntu ţrek drýgja, (then you must courage ‘exert ‘)" In this context, ‘to exert courage’ implies either suffering or violence.


We see that the meaning of drýgja in Edda is that to carry out an action either with violence (‘commit’) or with suffering (‘endure’). Völundrarkviđa thus teaches us that örlög cannot be carried out quietly. Either one carries out it in violence or one receives it in the suffering.


The maidensdrýgjendi(committing, etc.)  their örlög follow this rule.

They do not seem to suffer themselves from the situation but to bring suffering: By leaving their lovers, they leave Völundr’s two brothers in a desperate state (they attempt to follow them and disappear). they leave Völundr himself open to the terrible fate awaiting him.



In these two stanzas we meet a quite special description of örlög. It is not surprising that, according to the circumstances, the poets may insist on a specific feature of örlög. We should not see in this fact a “web of contradictions” but rather a fruitful concept that adapts to many circumstances.


Grípisspá (or Sinfiötlalok)



The poem Völu-spá (‘Völva’s-prophecy’) states to us clearly that a völva is able to prophesy (spá). One can also name a völva as being a spákona (prophecy-woman) or spá-mćr (prophecy-maiden). These last forms are the ones used for the men and Grípir is a spámađr (prophecy-man), the male equivalent of a völva, and the name of the poem means ‘Grípir’s prophecy’. The poem prose introduction tells that “hann… var allra manna vitrastr ok framvíss. (He was… of all men the wisest and the most certain (or wisest) about the future).

Sigurđr requires of him to state his future. Grípir speaks of a girl, beautiful of look and raised by a king named Heimir. Sigurđr answers as follows:


Sigurđr kvađ:


« Hvat er mik at ţví,

ţótt mćr séi

fögr áliti

fśdd at Heimis?

Ţat skaltu Grípir

görva segja,

ţví at ţú öll of sér

örlög fyrir. 


Sigurđr said:


“What is it to me,

though the maiden might be

fair of look

nurtured by Heimir?

That you must Grípir

clearly and enough tell

since for you all foresee

örlög before (you).”


Grípir tries very hard not to pronounce this örlög. Sigurđr urges him to reveal his full future. Grípir cautiously begins tell him starts to announce his meeting with Brynhildr (Brünhilde), that they will madly love each other but (s. 31) “It munuđ alla / eiđa vinna / fullfastliga, /fá munuđ halda (You will all / the oaths work out / fully-strong / few will you hold.” Of course Sigurđr is indignant at its own inconstancy, and Grípir must then explain to him these causes and he is trapped into the necessity to left nothing hidden.


In Lokasenna, we met an örlög telling the past; in Völundrarkviđa, a timeless örlög appears when it must. Here, at the beginning of the poem (s. 6-9) we have a rather past-örlög. Then Grípir states the victories to come (9-19) and refuses to continue. In front of Sigurđr’s insistence, he ends up revealing all his “örlög fyrir (örlög future)” (s. 27- 53).


We again meet a character who knows all about örlög. Just like Frigg, he very reluctant to share his knowledge.

In the last stanza, we understands that Grípir is a quite wary to have stated his truths to a fighter as dangerous as Sigurđr. Grípir knows well that he has just put his head at risk since Sigurđr is famous for his quick angering. Not without some elegance, he quiets down Grípir  in the two first lines of this stanza.  He says:




«Skiljum heilir, 

mun-at sköpum vinna…»



« Let us quit each other in happiness,

we cannot on the shapings win… »


This soothing conclusion is remarkable because, Sigurđ himself seems to accept his shapings. In studying the following poem, we will see that, twice, Sigurđr’s shapings will get some swerving in front of his ability to act.


or SigurŢarkviđa Fafnisbana Önnur


Recall that the English word ‘destiny’ is used here to translate the Norse ‘örlög’ and the plural ‘shapings’ is used for Norse ‘sköp’.


This poem begins with the well-known myth of Loki killing an otter ‘who’ unfortunately happens to be the son Otr (Otter) of Hreiđmarr (Steed of the heather) to whom he will have wergild to pay. After the killing,  three Ćsir, Óđinn, Hśnir and Loki, make a bag of the otter skin but, ignorant as they are of the exact nature of this otter, show it to Hreiđmarr, who recognizes his son’s skin and requires a compensation in order to avoid the duty of avenging his son. This compensation is huge (according to the usual standards): it consists in filling the bag with gold, to put it upright on its ‘legs’ filled with gold, then to cover the whole with a gold heap. Loki is in charge to gather enough gold; an important detail is that the treasure includes a ring that caught Loki’s eye. 

For this, he contacts the dwarf Andvari (see the details in the ‘tale’ ThreeCursesNibelung) who lives in water in the form of a pike.  This last proclaims:



“Andvari heiti ek,

Óinn hét minn fađir,

margan hef ek fors of farit,

aumlig norn

skóp oss í árdaga,

at skylda ek í vatni vađa


Andvari I am called,

Óinn was my father called,

by many torrents I travelled,

a wretched Norn

shaped for us in the old days

thus it occurs that in water I vade.


The form skóp employed here is the preterit of verb skapa, to work. In this case, allusion to a fate thrown by a ‘wretched’ Norne (aumligr is a kind of insult!)  is obvious is thus the sköp, the shapings of Andvari made that it became a pike.

When Loki obtained the gold of Andvari, the Ćsir then perform what is required. When this is done, Hreiđmarr notices an otter hair sticking out of the heap and forces Óđinn to hide it with the valuable ring Loki liked. Loki felt he already did much to obtain all this gold and he is furious at Hreiđmarr’s meanness. Loki thus will utter a curse relating to Hreiđmarr’s shapings (sköp). The following will tell us that this curse will be effective: another of Hreiđmarr’s sons, Fáfnir, will kill him and grab the treasure… and we will see later what happens then.


This curse is uttered in stanza 6:


Gull er ţér nú reitt

en ţú gjöld of hefr

mikil míns höfuđs,


syni ţínum

verđr-a sćla sköpuđ;

ţat verđr ykkarr beggja bani.


Gold is yours now wrathful [the wrathful gold]

But you compensations increase

much of my head

[you increase much the compensations for my head],

for son yours

not becomes happy the shaped [the shapings] ;

that becomes of you two both the death.


A curse is intended to modify the shapings of the cursed one. Loki does not seek to modify Hreiđmarr’s örlög but addresses the beings who shape the sköp. In addition, we also notice that Loki does not give any detail how Hreiđmarr and his son will die. On the other hand, Loki makes a point of specifying the reason for which Hreiđmarr’s shapings can be modified: he failed to be generous while obtaining a generous compensation.


Hreiđmarr has two more sons: Reginn (a name that I do not associate to ‘regin’, the gods, but to regi, cowardice - the Coward - and this name suits him well) and Fáfnir (meaning dubious, perhaps resulting from fá-fengr = catch-spoils?). Reginn and Fáfnir request of their father their share of the spoils because they took part in the violence made to the Ćsir. In front of their father’s refusal, “Fáfnir lagđi sverđi Hreiđmar föđur sinn sofanda (Fáfnir laid a sword (in) Hreiđmarr, father his, sleeping)” and seizes the spoils. Reginn would like to have also his share and requests it from Fáfnir who refuses. Reginn then asks his sister’s advice and she recommends him to ask again blithely: “Bróđur kveđja / skaltu blíđliga… (Your brother, you shall blithely ask…).” His sister thinks him a coward and, as a consequence, Reginn gets nothing. We know also that Fáfnir will disappear with the loot and change himself into a ‘worm’ (what we call now a dragon) and deal with him in the next poem studied, Fáfnismál.

Reginn has not the nerve to face his dragon become brother and he takes the decision to raise a future hero who will do the job in his place: Sigurđr, of whom he becomes the adoptive father.


He declares in s. 14:


Ek mun fśđa

folkdjarfan gram;

nú er Yngva konr

međ oss kominn;

sjá mun rćsir

ríkstr und sólu;

ţrymr um öll lönd



I will raise

the  people-proud furious one;

now is Yngvi’s kinsman

with us come;

he will (be) a leader

most powerful under the sun;

glorious in all lands

with (his) örlög-rope [the binding örlög].


According to its etymology (given by Vries), the masculine noun sími, rope, string, primarily indicates something which binds, which constrains. Although a cord is braided rather than spun here is the lone allusion which I found that might indicate  that destiny could be related to another activity than magic, such as weaving, braiding etc. In fact, we clearly see that the braiding of the rope is not significant: of importance is the fact that it binds Sigurđr to his bright destiny.

Notice that Loki wants to modify Hreiđmarr’s shapings (sköp) whereas he cannot change Sigurđr’s destiny (örlög) that binds him. In Fáfnismál, we will see how Sigurđr will succeed in shaping himself his shapings (implicitly once and also explicitly once). At the end of this poem, he will even be advised to avoid the next possible change. Nevertheless, in Sigrdrífumál first stanza, we will see that his örlög will wash him along until his death, without him being conscious of it.


Reginn thus wishes to take along Sigurđr towards Fáfnir’s cave in order to recover the treasure. Sigurđr, however, haughtily refuses: It would be ridiculous if the prince has more “desire to seek the red rings (of red gold) / than revenge for (his) father (’s death)!” Hence, they now travel to the place where lives the killer of Sigurđr’s father, Sigmundr.

On their way, they meet an old magician, Hnikarr, who will provide Sigurđr with information about his warrior future, a bit as Grípir did it already. This knowledge will be useful for him in the necessary combat to become a spotless warrior, that is, avenging his father’s death. Sigurđr requires of Hnikarr the signs, the omens by which a warrior can foresee the issue of a combat. 


He begins his request as follows:


Segđu mér Hnikarr,

alls ţá hvártveggja veizt

gođa heill ok guma:…


Tell me Hnikarr,

all, for both of them, you know

the omens for the gods and humankind…

The noun heill has several meanings. When its gender is neuter (as it is here) it means ‘forecast, prediction’.


Sigurđr undoubtedly follows this advice because he fights against his father’s killers and overcomes them. To the one who is the actual killer, he applies the ancient punishment, the one which must be applied to find back honor, i.e. death by the “bloody eagle”. This revenge is requested from a son for his father’s killer and cannot be inflicted in any other circumstance.


Sigurđr states :


Nú er blóđugr örn

bitrum hjörvi

bana Sigmundar

á baki ristinn…


Now is the bloody eagle

With a biting sword

for the death of Sigmundr

on the back carved…


The poem does not stress this point, but it is clear that setting up such a death ritual is of extreme importance on the way a hero shapes his life, his sköp. Here, this importance is not explicitly stated because, to some extent, Reginn has already been shaping a sköp such that Sigurđr’s main role is killing Fáfnir so that he, Reginn, can finally recover the treasure. To some extent, Sigurđr rebels against the sköp Reginn has worked out for him and he shapes for himself another sköp. This ‘self-shaping’ behavior will be much more explicitly described in the following poem.

Reginn thus takes along Sigurđr towards Fáfnir’s cave with the aim to have him killing Fáfnir and to recover this obsessing treasure.






Sigurđr and Reginn leave to find Fáfnir and spot the path he follows between his cave and the river where he waters himself. Reginn disappears hiding in a close moor while Sigurđr digs a pit that crosses Fáfnir’s path. When Fáfnir appears, spitting his poison, Sigurđr is hardly touched by it. As Fáfnir passes above him, he pierces Fáfnir’s heart with his sword. Fáfnir does not die at once, and they exchange some words with each other. Fáfnir says to him: “it gjalla gull / ok it glóđrauđa fé (this howling gold and this wealth red as embers)” will bring death to you.

He adds:


Fáfnir kvađ:  


Norna dóm

ţú munt fyr nesjum hafa

ok örlög ósvinns apa

alt er feigs forađ.  



Norns’ doom

you will in front of the nesses have

and an örlög of an unwise monkey

all is danger to the sentenced ones.



The doom of the Norns,

you will meet while sailing

and an idiotic monkey’s  örlög

all is danger to a sentenced one.



In this stanza, Fáfnir attempts cursing Sigurđr but you know that he will not drown “in front of a ness” and will not become either an “idiotic monkey.” Here, the curse is ineffective because it is not grounded in some real knowledge that Fáfnir would have about Sigurđr. At least, we confirm that Norns can render catastrophic a life and that there are catastrophic örlög. The following stanza shows that Fáfnir holds a great deal of knowledge and that Sigurđr knows it.

Sigurđr, as he did with Grípir, seeks to receive a teaching. Here is their exchange and it is deeply instructive for us.



Segđu mér Fáfnir...
hverjar ro ţćr nornir,
er nauđgönglar ro
ok kjósa
mśđr frá mögum.

Fáfnir kvađ:
Sundrbornar mjök
segi ek nornir vera,
eigu-t ţćr ćtt saman,
sumar ro áskunngar,
sumar alfkunngar,

sumar dśtr Dvalins.


Tell me Fáfnir…

which are these Norns,

who go to those in need

[or who are need-walkers]

and choose/part/bewitch

mothers from(their) sons.



Different-born much

I say Norns are,

have-not they family the same,

some are of the Ćsir family

some of the elves,

some Dvalinn’s daughters.


Tell me Fáfnir…

which are theseNorns’,

who go to those of need

(or who wander on the ways of need)

and split (sometimes by sorcery)

mothers from their sons.



They are born from various origins, theNorns ', I say,

and not from one family,

some are of the Ćsir family

some of the elves,

some are Dvalinn’s daughter

(father of the dwarves).


At first, let us note that the text does not make a difference between ‘the human ones who wanders in needand the possibility that Norns ‘wander in need(-territory)’, i.e. they ‘live in the country of need’. This last meaning appears most probable to me because it does not assign Norns to the role of handling humankind’s needs. Similarly, they do not help the women in their ‘needto give birth. They merely part two destinies that have been confused up until then.

Other poems teach us that the divinities who govern childbirth are called Dísir, (in the singular, one Dís) instead of being called Norns. In this stanza, it is obvious that Fáfnir and Sigurđr believe that Nornir and Dísir are identical. This error is not surprising on behalf of a young man as Sigurđr and it is extremely probable that a dying Fáfnir was not going to correct the vocabulary of his young killer. Indeed, we knows by Völuspá (s. 8) that the gods were disturbed by the arrival of three “ţursa meyiar… ór iötunheimom (thurse maidens … out of giant country).” It is true that we wait for stanza 20 to know that these three maids are the Norns. Anyhow, if Völuspá shows some coherence, these three girls can only be the Norns.

Lastly, Fáfnir informs us about the origins of the Dísir that seem to be quite varied. As long as the Dísir are closer to individual fates than of the one of the Universe, it is not surprising that each divine race provides ‘shaping leadersfor the human race. Notice that the giants are not quoted here, which is normal since the Norns already came from their kind.


In the following stanza (s. 14) Sigurđr uses a striking metaphor to speak of Ragnarök.  He indicates it by the fact that “er blanda hjörlegi/Surtr ok to Ćsir saman (they merge the sword-lake [legi is the dative of lögr, a lake and the rune Laukaz. Sword-lake is blood.] / Surtr and the Ćsir them together).” In Ragnarök the giants (personified here by Surtr, the fire giant) and the Ćsir will destroy saman (each other) and thus will merge the blood of their corpses. He uses this metaphor to ask Fáfnir where Ragnarök will take place and Fáfnir answers: “Óskópnir hann heitir (it is called ‘Unshaped one’)” and this may  imply that the place where Ragnarök will take place is not yet ‘worked out’. I send you back to Hrafnagaldr, stanzas 2 to 5 for a possible description of the magic charms that will shape this place so that Ragnarök might occur.

Finally, Fáfnir announces to Sigurđr that Reginn will betray and kill him, just as he has been betrayed. (s. 22): “Reginn mik réđ, / han ţik ráđa mun…(Reginn me advised and betrayed, and you betray and advise will…).” When Fáfnir is dead, Reginn reappears and recalls that Sigurđr has recently killed his brother “though he is partially guilty himself.” Sigurđr replies in two points. First, he recalls that he would never have attempted to kill Fáfnir if Reginn had not pushed him over the edge by questioning his courage. Second, he also recalls that Reginn (the Coward according to my interpretation of his name) behaved like a coward: While he, Sigurđr, fought with the dragon, he, Reginn hid somewhere in a close moor (s. 28) “afli mínu / atta ek viđ orms megin, / međan ţú í lyngvi látt (strength mine / I [had to exert] against the dragon’s power / while you in a moor were lying).”

Then, Reginn goes to Fáfnir’s corpse of, extracts his heart and drinks the blood running from this wound. He feels tired after having drunk all this blood and he asks Sigurđr to cook Fáfnir’s heart while he sleeps to recover. While cooking the heart, Sigurđr checks if the heart is well-cooked, burns his hand and put a finger in his mouth. Then, at once

en er hjartablóđ Fáfnis kom á tungu hánum, ok skilđi hann fugls rödd. Hann heyrđi, at igđur klökuđu á hrísinu.  

but the blood of the heart of Fáfnir came on tongue his [Sigurđr’s], and could him of the bird [understand ] the language. He heard the nuthatches that whispered on the bushes.

[A nuthatch is a small bird, approximately titmouse sized, that feeds on worms it finds in the bark of trees. Though much smaller, its beak shape is similar to a woodpecker’s and it is very discrete, as opposed to more familiar birds such as a titmouse. I see in them what we now call the “spirits of the forest,” or, in the present context, the dísir. Their language is certainly as full ofmagicas the celebratedbird language’. ]

Igđan kvađ:

The first   said:


s. 33

Önnur kvađ:

Ţar liggr Reginn,

rćđr um viđ sik,

vill tćla mög

ţann er trúir hánum, ...

vill bölvasmiđr (bölva-smiđr)

bróđur hefna.


One saids:

Here is lying Reginn planning for himself,

he will betray the boy who relies on him…

will want the evil-doer the brother to avenge.



Here  is Reginn lying

calculating for his own interest,

he will betray the boy

who has confidence in him,…

this evil-doer will

want to avenge his brother.


Sigurđr has already been informed of the danger he is facing by Fáfnir, then by Reginn himself, and this is now confirmed by the forest spirits, all say to him to be wary of Reginn. But he also knows that Reginn is a powerful wizard and that he had to shape Sigurđr’s fates so that they irrevocably lead to his death (Sigurđr’s). We can express this, in this case, by saying that Reginn had cast a spell on Sigurđr so that his fate becomes dying after Fáfnir’s killing. He wards of this spell by stating, or by understanding that he has a way out if he kills Reginn.  


s. 39

"Verđa-t svá rík sköp,
at Reginn skyli
mitt banorđ (
ban-orđ) bera;
ţví at ţeir báđir brśđr
skulu bráđliga

fara til heljar heđan."


Will become-not so powerful the shapings

that Reginn must

myof death-word’ [my death sentence] carry; because them two brothers

soon will travel

towards Hel from here.



The shapings (‘sköp’) will not be so powerful

that Reginn must

carry my death sentence;

 because, soon, the two brothers

will leave this place

to travel  towards Hel.


He thus cuts Regin’s head and, as the text insists upon, he eats Fáfnir’s heart and drinks the blood of the two corpses, the one of Reginn and the one of Fáfnir. Here a literal translation of this episode:

Sigurđr hjó höfuđ af Regin, ok ţá át han Fáfnis hjarta ok drakk blóđ will ţeira beggja, Regins ok Fáfnis. Ţá heyrđi Sigurđr, hvar igđur mćltu:

Sigurđr cut the head of Reginn, and then ate him of Fáfnir the heart and drunk the blood of all two, Reginn and Fáfnir. Then heard Sigurđr, what the nuthatches said:


s. 40

Bitt ţú Sigurđr
bauga rauđa,
er-a konungligt
kvíđa mörgu;
mey veit ek eina
miklu fegrsta,
gulli gśdda,

ef ţú geta mćttir.


Tie Sigurđr

the red rings,

is-not regal

to fear much;

a maid know I single

very beautiful,

of gold equipped,

if you obtain meet.


Pack up, Sigurđr,

the treasure of red gold rings

it is not worthy of a king

to fear and hesitate so much;

I know an exceptional maid,

she is full of beauty

and with gold outfitted,

if you are able to obtain her.


After all these events, it is quite possible that Sigurđr was a little hesitant on choosing a best behavior. Thespirit-nuthatches’ call him to order and say that he now has to go to Sigrdrífa, the woman whom he must now meet. Grípir already announced his future and already announced to him the need for this meeting.

In the following stanza, the nuthatches warn him on the fact that awaking her is not an excellent idea.


s. 44

Knáttu mögr séa
mey und hjalmi,
ţá er frá vígi
Vingskorni reiđ;
má-at Sigrdrífar
svefni bregđa,
skjöldunga niđr,

fyr sköpum norna.


You know how, boy, to see

the girl under the helmet

when towards the combat

on Vingskornir rode;

you are able-not Sigrdrífa

of her sleep to split,

child of Skjöldungr,

against the Norns’ shapings.


You, lad, will be able to see

the girl under the helmet

when she rode to combat

on Vingskornir (her horse);

Child of Skjöldungr, (son of a great family)

you are not able to stop

Sigrdrífa’s sleep

against the Norns’ shapings.


Sigrdrífa is a Valkyrie who disobeyed Óđinn’s orders by not choosing the warrior he wanted to die in combat. To punish her, he pricks her with “the thorn of sleep.” Óđinn, in this case, is who decided  of Sigrdrífa’ shapings. In this very case again, we could also say that he “casted a spell on her,” that is he “shaped a spell on her”.

The nuthatches say very clearly that Sigurđr will be unable to awake her. When we will see how he awakes her, we will understand that either thespirits’ were misled, or they wanted to imply that awaking her was very dangerous because he would then  to find himself overlapping with the Norns’s intentions, i.e. he would get into enter the destiny Grípir had foreseen. This last assumption seems to me most probable.  

The following poem is called Sigrdrífu - mál,of Sigrdrífa - the word’, because when she meets Sigurđr she is still a Valkyrie (she will be called Brynhildr later, her best known name).





The poem begins with a comment:


Sigurđr gekk í skjaldborgina ok sá , at ţar lá mađr ok svaf međ öllum hervápnum. Hann tók fyrst hjálminn af höfđi hánum. Ţá sá hann, at ţat var kona. Brynjan var föst sem hon vćri holdgróin. Ţá reist hann međ Gram frá höfuđsmátt brynjuna í gögnum niđr ok svá út í gögnum báđar ermar. Ţá tók hann brynju af henni, en hon vaknađi, ok settist hon upp ok sá Sigurđr ok mćlti…


Sigurđr entered the stronghold-shield [I suppose this is name for a stronghold built in a particular way] and he saw, there was human and ‘quieted’ fully armed. He removed first the helmet of the head. Then, he saw that she was a woman. The coat of arms was tight as if it had grown in the flesh. Then he gashed the coat of arms with Gram from the neck to down and the two arms. Then he took the coat of mail out of her and she woke up, and sat down and saw Sigurđr and said:


Sigrdrífa sleeps in a very particular place, which is a fort bearing the name of a well-known war tactic. Let us note that, when he arrives, Sigurđr sees a fully-armed warrior so that he calls him/her a human person (mađr). As foresaw the spirits-nuthatches, he “can see the girl under her helmet.” It is the first action he does when meeting her.

Up to that point, he followed the nuthatches advice and he was able to shape the fates in order to keep some control on his destiny. Does he know he will awake her by slicing her coat of arms? At any rate, this coat of arms seems to be grown in the flesh and he can suspect that it will awake the sleeping beauty. Thus, voluntarily or by negligence, and in spite of the nuthatches advice, he will slice this coat and he will awake Sigrdrífa, and with her, their örlög.



Hvat beit brynju?

Hví brá ek svefni?

Hverr felldi af mér

fölvar nauđir?


What bit the coat of mail?

Why I stopped my sleep?

Who fell from me

the pale needs?


What sliced the coat of mail?

Why I stopped my sleep?

Who made fall

the pale needs that bound me?  


In this context, the “pale needs" evoke the paleness of a corpse-like Sigrdrífa in her bewitched sleep due to Óđinn’s shapings.


Thus, Sigurđr awoke Sigrdrífa and their destinies will go as far as becoming the Germanic representatives of the pressure destiny can put upon us.

They will passionately love each other and as Grípir said: (s. 29), “gár-a ţú manna / nema ţú mey séir [you will not give any more attention to humankind / nothing except the maid you will see]” but (s. 31) “It munuđ alla  /eiđa vinna / fullfastliga, / fá munuđ halda [ (You two together will want all / oaths work out / fully-firm ones / few will you be able to keep]”.

But this is another history, the one of a fully adult Sigurđr, and it has already been told thousand times.


Sigurdharkviđa in skamma


SigurŢarkviđa Fafnisbana Ţriđja



This Sigurđr’s ‘short’ Ballad is nevertheless 71 stanzas long. It describes how Sigrdrífa, now called Brynhildr, will push her husband (Gunnar) to murder Sigurđr, she will describe her own suicide and how, during her death throes, she predicts Gunnar’s and Sigurđr’s widow, Guđrún, future.

Stanza 5 provides the image of a flawless Brynhildr who looks naive: She claims that fate is responsible for the death her beloved Sigurđr.



Hon sér at lífi
löst né vissi
ok at aldrlagi
ekki grand,
vamm ţat er vćri
eđa vera hygđi;
gengu ţess á milli

grimmar urđir.


She led her life
of a flaw did not know
and until deatht
no guile,
(or) blemish of any kind
to exist she could think of;
went in between that

stern fates.


Löstr means flaw, ‘improper behavior’ though it does not refer to the idea of  ‘sin’.

This means that “stern fates” will explain why,  in stanza 6, Brynhildr’s soul and body exacerbate and she declares: Hafa skal ek Sigurđ, - eđa ţó svelta, - (Have Sigurđr shall I – else  shal I die/kill)”: verb svelta means both to die and to kill and she indeed will start the process by which they will both die.

She is at once sorry for these words… and however go on yielding to her fate, but she specifically some sköp, shapings, to have been the cause of her misfortunes, as stanza 7 shows.


Orđ mćltak nú,

iđrumk eptir ţess:

kván er hans Guđrún,

en ek Gunnars;

ljótar nornir

skópu oss langa ţrá.


A word I uttered now,

I will be sorry later of it :

his wife is Guđrún,

and I Gunnar’s;

wretched norns

shaped us a long yearning.


The Norns, as divinities, are supposed to decide of our fate as a whole they do not cast spells that will shape these ‘details’ that are so important for us. It is thus possible to see the word nornir like aheitifor women, and som  “dreadful women” who would then have shaped these misfortunes into Brynhildr fate. In order to recognize the identity of these women, we have to open a short intermezzo in order to compare some facts in Völsunga saga, and others in the poetic Edda, in particular Guđrúnarkviđa in forna stanzas 21-26.



Magic potion used in Völsunga saga and Guđrúnarkviđa in forna


Völsunga saga version

As we saw in the preceding poems,Völsunga saga tells us how Sigurđr made Brynhildr (ex-Sígrdrifa) free of Óđinn’s shapings (sköp). Sigurđr expresses his wish to have Brynhildr as a wife and she concurs: ţess sver ek viđ guđin, at ek skal ţik eiga eđa enga konu ella (I swear in front of the gods, that I will to ‘own’ (mary) you and no other woman)” Sigurđr says, and the saga adds Hún mćlti slíkt. (She spoke in the same way)”.  

From our point of view, the one of understanding how ancient Scandinavians would comprehend fate, three women will decide Sigurđr’ fate: obviously Brynhildr, and also Grímhildr and Guđrún. Grímhildr is the wife of the king with whom Sigurđr lives, she is Guđrún’s mother that the saga describes as a “fjölkunnga (vell-knowing one, witch)” and a “grimmhuguđ kona (woman hate/brutality spirited)”.

When this handsome warrior rich of the treasure recovered from Fáfnir shows up, she decides that he will marry her Guđrún. She is perfectly conscious of the bonds linking Brynhildr and Sigurđr and gives him a potion for memory loss. The saga simply states that she served a potion, and provides no detail on its content.


Guđrúnarkviđa in forna version.

None the poems that deal with this topic explain in detail why Sigurđr forgets his oaths to Brynhildr. Hereis the most complete explanation I could find, in Grípisspá, s. 33: Ţú verđr, siklingr, / fyr svikum annars, / muntu Grímhildar / gjalda ráđa (You will become, young prince, / by other betrayals (or poisons), / you will of Grímhildr / endure the advice).” This provides a bond between Völsunga saga poisoned drink and this stanza 33, except if the translator forgets the meaning ‘poison’, such as Boyer: “treasons” only, or  Orchard: “plots.”  However svik does hold both meanings of treason and poison, i.e. one should translate it here by something as “treacherous poisons.”

We will see in Guđrúnarkviđa in forna below that Grímhildr again uses a potion for memory loss but she does it now for Guđrún, in order to make her forget her grief sorrow at after Sigurđr’s death. In this case, the magic process is very much detailed.


All things considered, the conjunction of Völsunga saga and poetic Edda shows us that Grímhildr used twice the magic of a memory loss potion. By these charms, it is able to shape the fate of her close relations, and this exactly what I read in Sigurđarkviđa in skamma stanzas 5 and 7.


End of the interlude


Skaldic poetry abounds in heiti, this way of speech using a word in place of another one, such as speaking a woman and using for the word ‘norn’  in order to boost one of her features.  This is why I think that Brynhildr alludes here Grímhildr’s shapings, she is one of the ‘norns’ referred at.

We now will study stanza 58 that confirms all these assumptions. During her death throes, she utters several prophecies related to Gunnar, but especially, it interprets in an interesting way the failure of their relationship in the two last lines of the stanza:  



Muntu Oddrúnu

eiga vilja,

en ţik Atli

mun eigi láta;

it munuđ lúta

á laun saman,

hon mun ţér unna,

sem ek skyldak,

ef okkr góđ of sköp

gerđi verđa.

 You will Oddrún
own wish, (
you will wish to mary Oddrún)
though to you Atli
will not let (
Atli will not agree to your relationship) ;
both will you lower yourselves (
agree to)
in secret together (
meet in secret),

she will to you give love

as I should have

if to us good (magic) shapings

would have been brought.



The verb göra, to make, gives gerđi in the preterit.  

The verb verđa, to become, is the verb that has its plural preterit in urđu, the one associated Norn Urđr.

The last two lines indicate that Brynhildr does not allot the failure of  her relationship with Gunnar to ‘fate’, i.e. an immutable örlög, but by the fact that bad spells’ had been cast on them. The interlude above explains where these bad spells come from[1].


Her life now comes to its end:


Mart sagđa ek,

munda ek fleira,

er mér meir mjötuđr

málrúm gćfi;

ómun ţverr,

undir svella,

satt eitt sagđak,

svá mun ek láta.


Much could I say, 

would I have more, (I could have said much more)

if my mjötuđr (‘measure-supplier’)

word-place (enough  speaking time for other words) gave me;

the voice dies out,

under (the effect of) swelling),

truth one (the truth) I declared (about me - I truly described myself) thus I will let go.


The word mjötuđr is related to mjöt, a measurement, so that mjötuđr is who ‘gives the measure’ of things, just as our orchestra leaders. According to the context, it will mean either (optimistic view) a god, a guard, or (pessimistic view) a plague.   Here, it can be fate, in the sense of ‘who measures our lives. In general, this word is used to speak of an organizer, fate, god or luck etc. It can well be here fate, as the one who attributes our lives’ measure. We shall see in Oddrúnargrátr s.13 that the poet uses the surprising way of speech : “the highest maid measure (reference) in the world” and again refers to mjötuđr.




All considered, the vocabulary used by Brynhildr suggests that she does not consider her separation from Sigurđr has been part of the immutable örlög carved by the Norns. She considers that she underwent two different kinds of sköp. The first ones are those inflicted by Óđinn for her disobedience, but she does not complain much of these that led her to meet Sigurđr.  Inversely, as we have just seen, she bitterly complains of the sköp shaped by Grímhildr because they shaped her örlög to include the separation from Sigurđr. She was herself a powerful magician, and by teaching the runes to him, as described by Sigrdrífumál, she believed to have forged the sköp that would bind him to her for ever. She becomes aware  that Grímhildr was a magician even more powerful than her. Grímhildr might even have been more cunning than her since she hit the weak link: Sigurđr who nevertheless finds Guđrún quite attractive.

This battle of witches is implicit in the texts, but I hope I could suggest its existence.




Guđrúnarkviđa in forna


This poem is interesting because it explains how have been concocted Grímhildr’s sköp, her shapings.



Forđi mér Grímhildr

full at drekka

svalt ok sárligt,

né ek sakar munđak;

ţat var of aukit

jarđar magni,

svalköldum sć

ok sónum dreyra.




Váru í horni

hvers kyns stafir

ristnir ok rođnir,

- ráđa ek né máttak;

lyngfiskr langr,

lands Haddingja

ax óskorit,

innleiđ dyra (dýra).






Váru ţeim bjóri

böl mörg saman,

urt alls viđar

ok akarn brunnin,

umdögg arins,

iđrar blótnar,

svíns lifr sođin,

ţví at hon sakar deyfđi.




Brought to me Grímhildr

a full (horn) with drinking

cold and wounding,

not I to blame could (I could no more blame something);

it was enhanced

by earth power,

by cold and frozen sea

and by a porcine-sacrificial blood (blood of a sacrificial pig).


Hávamál 137 quotes also the power of the earthand the role of a corn ear in magic.


Were (written) on the horn

any kind of magic signs

carved and (blood-)reddened

- to read (them) I could not;  

heather-fish (serpent) long,

of the country of the Haddings

a corn ear unmarked (not carved, intact),

bowels of a beast (any animal except a bird).


We know of a family of heroes, the Haddingjar,  we however know nothing of their exact localization. Boyer states the country of dead ones” and  Orchard, the seawithout real justification.


Were there in the beer

many evils together,

roots of all trees

and of acorns roasted,

around-dew of hearth (= soot)

entrails (coming from a) blót,

of a pig the boiled liver,

with that the pains blunted.


The goal of Grímhildr is double, to blunting Guđrún’s pain and to make her forget Sigurđr’s death.


It is obvious that we do not understand anymore the magic recipes of old. But, insofar as sköp are so present in skaldic poetry, they should have been extremely important. In another study, I will gather the whole of magic potions description in order to compare them. Here, it is enough for me to convince the reader that sköp are the methods used by the magicians to shape its details to örlög. All things considered, the örlög are the  ‘raw material’ of fate, and the sköp are the result after an artist left his/her trace on them, as a piece of furniture testifies the skill of a craftsman to shape wood.


Guđrúnarkviđa in fyrsta


This poem describes Guđrún’s suffering when she discovers Sigurđr’s body. It starts with a comment:

"Guđrún sat to yfir Sigurdhi dauđum… hon var búinn til at springa af harmi. Til gengu bćđi konur ok karlar at hugga hana, in ţat var eigi auđvelt "

Guđrún sat for Sigurđr’s corpse… she was about to burst with sadness. To her, women and men went to take care of her, but that was not easy.

In particular, her sister Gullrönd tries to comfort her by asking her to kiss the corpse’s lips and, obviously, her pain Guđrún increases. She end up insulting Brynhildr by calling her “armrar vćttar (malicious soul, here = “essence of wickedness.” The last one is present and answers, which causes Gullrönd’s fury who shouts at her as follows:



Ţá kvađ ţat Gullrönd

Gjúka dóttir:

« Ţegi ţú, ţjóđleiđ,

ţeira orđa;

urđr öđlinga

hefr ţú ć verit,

rekr ţik alda hver

illrar skepnu,

sorg sára

sjau konunga

ok vinspell

vífa mest ».


Thus Gullrönd spoke,

Gjúki’s daughter girl:

“Be silent, very-hateful one,

of these words; (do not utter, very hateful one, these words)

the fate (here: an unhappy one, death) of princes

you always have been;

you unfold to these people

a bad a shape/fate/’shaping’,

(you have been) a sorrow wound

to seven kings

and friendship-destruction

of women the largest.”

(the biggest destroyer of friendship between women)


Skepnu is also related to the verb skapa, to shape, and means here a shaping, as a singular form for sköp. Here, Brynhildr is accused to have shaped evil on ‘these people’, rather wrongfully, though did a lot of evil with no need of magic.

[1] I am quite conscious that the spell cast by Grímhildr is relative to the relation between Sigurđr and Brynhildr and not between her and Gunnar. However, the poems and saga we just have seen abundantly show that Sigurđr’s treason is the constant cause of Brynhildr’ misfortune. She is obviously wounded as a loving woman, but also as an oath faithful person. She explicitly says to Gunnar that she despises him because he is an ‘oath breaker’. She should think the same of her Sigurđr: he is indeed the most spirited man (as opposed to Gunnar) but an oath breaker nevertheless.


Oddrúnarkviđa (Oddrúnargrátr)



In this poem, Oddrún describes her misfortunes. She is Atli’s and Brynhildr’s sister. The three of them are king Budli’s children



En hann Brynhildi

bađ hjalm geta,

hana kvađ hann óskmey

verđa skyldu;



kvađ-a hann ina ćđri

alna (gen. plur.) mundu

mey (acc.) í heimi,


nema mjötuđr spillti.


And he (Budli) for Brynhildr

begged (asked) the helmet to obtain,

she said that she wish-maiden (Valkyrie)

to become wanted;

Budli (humbly?) requested that Brynhildr could become a warrior. On her side, she wished to become a Valkyrie.

(he) that said that she highest 

of the ‘measures’ should

maiden in the house (the world),

(he said that she was to become the highest maid reference in the world)

unless the giver of measures would waste (all that).




This stanza uses the word ‘alnagenitive plural of alin, the length of a forearm, or any measurement. Mjöt is also a measure, and it is impossible that the skald could have been unaware of it. We can thus see here a pun on Brynhildr’s ‘measure’ and the one used by the big giver.

We have seen, in Sigurđarkviđa in skamma s. 5, a similar way of speech where everything is perfect until “grimmar urđir come in play. It is thus clear that this mjötuđr is here a form of urđr, of destiny. Recall also that the word mjötuđr is used in Sigurđarkviđa in skamma s. 71, there also with a meaning similar to the one of urđr.  


The last stanza concludes thus:



Sattu ok hlýddir,

međan ek sagđak ţér

mörg ill of sköp

mín ok ţeira;


mađr hverr lifir

at munum sínum.

Nú er of genginn

grátr Oddrúnar.


You had sat and listened

while I told you 

much evil of the shapings

mine and theirs;

(I said much evil of my and the others’ shapings)

human being each lives

with duties his.

Now is gone (ended)

the wailing of Oddrún.


Thus, the two sisters, Brynhildr and Oddrún use the word sköp to speak about their destiny, rather than the one of örlög.



Atlakviđa (Dauđi Atla)


Guđrún eventually marries Atli, as her mother wished. This poem, as well as the following, describes how Atli kills Guđrún’s brothers, and how the latter are avenged. In stanza 39, we reach the outcome and Guđrún in a fury takes part in the fight.



Gulli söri

in gaglbjarta,

hringum rauđum

reifđi hon húskarla;

sköp lét hon vaxa,

en skíran málm vađa,

ćva fljóđ ekki

gáđi fjarghúsa


Gold she sowed

the shining-goose, [in this time geese were not yet stupid!]

with the red rings

untied them servants;

sköp let them swell, grow,

and the pure metal ‘wade’ (stride),

never the torrent (Guđrún, as a torrent) ever

was concerned with the large house.


She sprinkles with gold the servants of the house so that they join her in the battle and she lets the shapings take power upon the participants in this battle, i.e. she boundlessly uses her magic and her gold to fight the enemy.


Atlamál in grćnlenzku

In the first stanza, we understand that Atli’s warriors meet to discuss the state of affairs:


Sköp ćxtu skjöldunga

- skyldu-at feigir, -

illa réđsk Atla,

átti hann ţó hyggju;


Sköp they let grow ‘those of the shield’ (Skjöldungs, warriors) 

- should not have been strange/near death/mad 

badly Atli has been badly advised,

though he had quite a good mind;


Thus, the warriors, just as Guđrún does in Atlakviđa above, cause a ‘swell’ of the sköp i.e., here, that the warriors try to shape fate in order to cause a battle. In modern language, one would say that they “increase pressure” but this removes any magic from the process, while magic is always present in the ancient Scandinavian civilization.


Högni and his brothers have been invited to meet Atli at his castle. Guđrún, who attended or spied upon the warriors’ ceremonies, knows that this is a trap. She thus sends a message in runes to warn her brothers but the messenger scrambles the runes. Another woman notices that these runes were tampered with and she tries to warn the warriors, with no success. Moreover, Högni shows such an arrogance that he cannot change his mind unless being called a coward. They will nevertheless leave. At the time of departure, Högni is his wife exchange a long glance: they do not expect to see each other again.



Sásk til síđan,

áđr í sundr hyrfi,

ţá hygg ek sköp skiptu,

skilđusk vegir ţeira.


They ‘saw each other’ (looked at each other) towards since’ (then) 

already separately ‘rotated’ (taking opposite ways) 

thus I think the sköp had appointed them

their ways were branching off...


When her brothers arrive, Guđrún is afflicted to see that her try at warning them had failed.


Leitađa ek í líkna

at letja ykkr heiman,

sköpum viđr manngi,

ok skuluđ ţó hér komnir.


I sought a cure

to do let you at home

fates against nobody (nobody (can go) against the fates),

and it happens nevertheless that you came.

The battle rages and Guđrún’s brothers are submerged by the mass of their opponents. The battlefield is flooded with blood and we meet an unexpected way (for our time) to use verb verđa, to become. The context clearly announces that they died, thus ‘to become’ is not appropriate. We can suppose, as everyone does, that it then takes the meaning: to become what we all must become, i. e. a corpse’.


…flóđi völlr blóđi,

átján áđr fellu,

efri ţeir urđu


… flooded the (battle) field blood,

eighteen already fell,

the best of them ‘became… (the best warriors died)


The following stanza does directly inform us the concept of destiny. It is simply an example of a very ambiguous use of the wordauđna, chance’.   

Atli and Guđrún quarrel one last time last during Atli’s anguish, she has wounded him to death. Atli tries to justify himself by telling a part of its youth. He and his sisters (I suppose), following Sigurđr, wandered on the sea:


Ţrjú várum systkin,

skćva vér létum,

skipi hvert várt stýrđi,

örkuđum at auđnu,

unz vér austr kvómum.


Three we were, brothers and sisters ( (?), Oddrún, Atli and Brynhildr)

To stride we ‘let go’,

on a ship driven by,

unknown to chance/fate (led by an unknown chance/fate)

until we in the East reach.


A ship driven by an unknown chance can be a fate driven ship. But an anachronistic translation such as : “Our ship followed a random trajectory” would as much ‘make sense’. Some claims show that piety and unbelief coexisted in this civilization. Unbelievers could believe in nothing but randomness as do now many people who  are as unaware of  the laws of randomness as their 9th c. ancestors.



Editorial note:  It can be difficult to find the heading of this poem. Grógaldr and Fjölsvinnsmál were joined together by Bugge under the name of Svipdagsmál, (Bugge, 1867,  http://etext.old.no/Bugge/ . The editors do not follow always this convention.


Gróa’s son, Svipdagr, calls upon the assistance of his dead mother because he is facing an impossible mission imposed to him by his mother-in-law.


4. Gróa kvađ

"Löng er för,

langir’u/’ro farvegar,

langir’u/’ro manna munir;

ef ţat verđr,

at ţú ţinn vilja bíđr,


ok skeikar ţá


Skuld/Skuldar at sköpum.


4. Gróa said:

Long is the journey,

long are the ways

long are the wishes/delights of the humankind;

if that may be,

with you to you goodwill (genitive) preserve

(you keep for you the goodwill)

and that then (she) twists (to your advantage)

(Skuld then twists in your favor)

Skuld [nominative] by the sköp.

(?: if possible, preserve Skuld’s favor and may her shape thus your fate.)


Verb bíđa, ‘to remain, support, preserve’, has its object in the genitive, wherefrom the form vilja, genitive of vili, favor, delight. This obviously recalls verb vilja, ‘to want, desire’ but it is not well integrated in the sentence.  

The plural dative sköpum implies that the sköp are regarded here as an agent of modification and not as the cause of the modification, hence my translation “to twist by the sköp.”  

The reading Skuldar (gen. sing.) provides “Skuld’s favor”. This would lead to the translation: “you preserve ‘upon you’ Skuld’s favor and that then she modifies by the sköp.” Both translations are somewhat strange and we can suppose that this is a ritual formula stating “if possible, preserve Skuld’s favor and may her shape thus your fate.” In any case, Skuld is not called upon to modify the örlög of Gróa’s son, but to shape it favorably, understating that it could have been also shaped for the worse.


The word skuld means debt, which is not something to deal lightly with, it has to be refunded at any price. If we connect it to the verb skulu, must, the past forms of which are skyldi and skyldu, this would connect it to the past rather the present than as many translators claim. My argument is all the stronger as the ‘y' is pronounced as an ‘u' according to the most recent reconstitutions of the spoken Old Norse. In my opinion, Skuld is not at all connected to temporality: a debt is contracted in the past, we pay it in the present or the future. She is thus ‘simply’ the Norn of debts’ acknowledgement. We do not know the details of the debt Svigpadr must pay, except that he complains of it in stanza 3, but Skuld is in proper place here. You will find in the comment to Völuspá stanza 20 a more detailed discussion on the meaning of the Norns’ names HERE 


In order to comply to her son’s request, Gróa will utter/sing nine incantations, while standing on a stone stuck in the ground at the edge of the dead’s dwelling … magic can hardly be absent here!



Ţann gel ek ţér annan,

ef ţú árna skalt

viljalauss á vegum:

Urđar lokur

haldi ţér öllum megum,

er ţú á sinnum sér.


Thus I shout/sing a second one,

if you receive will

bad luck on the ways

(may) Urđr’s bonds

hold for you the whole strength,

that you (may) in (good) company (or on a good way) be.


The expression á sinnum may also take the fixed meaning of “on the way until its end.”

The word urđr is one of the Old Norse words meaning fate, as örlög and sköp between others. It is related to the verb verđa, of which the plural preterit is urđu, meaning "they became". Because urđu describes something that happened in the past, we can suppose that Urđr is related to the past. We could also understand it as the entity who draws up the assessment of all our actions. The bonds of Urđr must thus refer to the assessment of the life of Svipdagr. Gróa requires of Urđr that no force can separate Svipdagr from his past, it must remain ‘in one piece’ to be able to overcome his test.






As noticed by Bugge, this poem looks like a continuation of the precedent one. However, in this second poem, he is initially presented under the name of Vindkaldr (Wind-frozen). It is only at end of the poem which it will say that he is called Svipdagr, as in Grógaldr. If the assumption of Bugge is exact, one could thus confuse Svipdagr and Óđr, Freyja’s husband, who left her for reasons unknown, we only know that she cried gold tears at his departure [I provide all these details because, in the translations, we often see Vindkaldr pops out of nothing and mysteriously disappears at some point].  


Freyja is called Menglöđ in this poem, Svipdagr-Vindkaldr approaches her dwelling. He meets an unpleasant reception of the guard of the places who says to him that it does not have anything to make here. They at first insult each other by both calling a troll the other one (“Hvat er ţat flagđa?    (Who is this troll?)),” then the guardian adds: ok dríf ţú nú vargr at vegi. (and you wipe out now, wolf/monster, toward your way).” These kindnesses being done, they can pass to the serious things and here begins a competition in knowledge. Vindkaldr-Svipdagr asks to the guard questions relating to mythology. As we see, the newcomer is the one who actually put to test the guardian. This ends when he asks a question that only Svipdagr can ask - just as Óđinn raises a last question by which he reveals his identity. In this case, the loser seems quite happy to have lost the contest, he only is a bit concerned by the possibility of an error: he justly fears Freyja’s wrath in case the newcomer is not Svipdagr.

One of the questions Vindkaldr asks the guardian is relative to the name of the dogs that control also the entrance of the place. The guardian is at first a little scorning (“if you want that knowledge…”) but he ends up provide the number Freyja’s maids: eleven. S. 38 will give us nine names from these eleven. From our point of view, last the line is most interesting, it provides an indication on the meaning of rök in Ragnarök: it is “unz rjúfask regin (until the gods break).” It is seen here that rök is paraphrased by ‘to be destroyed’, which will enlighten us in the final understanding of this word.




Gífr heitir annarr,

en Geri annarr,

ef ţú vilt ţat vita;

varđir ellifu

er ţeir varđa,

unz rjúfask regin.

The guardian says:  


Gífr is called one

and Geri the other,

if you want that to know;

guards to the eleven ones (they are guardians for eleven ones)

that protect them, (and they protect them)

until the gods break. (until the gods break down.)



Another question which Vindkaldr raises is related to Yggdrasill. The whole exchange explains us why it is also called: “mjötuđr, measure-supplier, a word that we know and which has nothing to do with the word ‘tree’. The guard explains him that its fruits (undoubtedly yew berries) help during a difficult childbirth and this is why Yggdrasill is human ones’ “measure-supplier.”




Út af hans aldni

skal á eld bera

fyr kelisjúkar[1] konur;

útar hverfa

ţats ţćr innar skyli,

sá er hann međ mönnum mjötuđr.



Since its fruits

will be in the fire carried

for the women in labour;

outside to turn

what to them inside should,

from this ‘it’ (! or rather ‘he’) is the measure-supplier for the human ones.




From the point of view of mythology, this denomination is also very interesting. It is seen that some ‘objects’, such as Yggdrasill and Óđroerir, have a soul as the poet said and that, in exceptional circumstances, they can play a direct role. We will meet this phenomenon with Óđroerir in stanza 2 of Hrafnagaldr below. In such a condition, can we still call them an ‘it’?


Lastly, Svipdagr, which has just won his knowledge duel (in a way ahypocrite’ one, as one often says of Óđinn) ends providing his name. The last three lines are famous since they clearly say that örlög is not likely to be modified under any pretext. The sköp really do not modify it, but they shape what is not yet decided in it. For example, all human ones carry death in their örlög.  It is possible that, at least for some of them, the how or when of it is not fixed in their örlög.



Svipdagr kvađ:


Svipdagr ek heiti,

Sólbjart hét minn fađir,

ţađan rákumz (Bugge: ráumk ) vindar kalda vegu;

Urđar orđi

kveđr engi mađr,

ţótt ţat sé viđ löst lagit.




Svipdagr (Swift-day) I am called

Sólbjart (Sun-brilliance) was called my father,

from there led us winds by a frozen way;


of Urđr the word 

says/sings/challenges no man,

although this one (word) with error may be kept.







Against Urđr’ word

no one speaks/sings

even if this word is laid by mistake.


The verb reka, to lead, does ráku in the plural preterit; this is why I preferred the reading of this word given by Rask.  

The verbs kveđja and kveđa do to both kveđr with the third anybody of the code present.   Kveđja can mean ‘to challenge. Kveđa means to say/sing. The idea of ‘singing’ evokes an attempt to oppose the örlög by magic.

[1] In stanza 2 of Völuspá, the central tree of the world is called: mjötviđr, which thus means measure-tree, which embarrasses the translators. C-V. sees here a transcription mistake.   

On kélisjúkr. This word is translatedhysterical’ by C-V, ‘sickly’ by de Vries. It is clear, according to lines 4 and 5, that the stanza speaks of a difficult childbirth which, indeed, can drive women to pain-caused insanity, but has nothing to do with hysteria or a morbid temperament. Moreover, Lex. Poet. precisely gives:utero laborantes feminć’. This shows how much it has been difficult to introduce, except in Latin, this delicate topic.



Hrafnagaldr Óđins



Lassen’s ON version

YK’s literal translation

Lassen’s English translation


Ćtlun Ćsir

alla gátu,

verpir viltu

vćttar rúnum.

Ođhrćrer skylde

Urdar gejma,

mattkat veria

mest-um ţorra.

Guessed the Ćsir

of (some) ill purpose,

twisters disturbed

the Wights with runes;

Óđhrćrir should

Urđr watch,

powerless was (she) to protect

from the 


[But] the Ćsir divined

the whole plan,

the unpredictable ones caused muddle

with the gods runes (or secrets).

Óđhrćrir had to

look after Urđur (fate),

he could not protect [her]

from the greater part [of the plan].


Urđr is one of the three Nornes whose name means ‘destiny’. Óđhrćrir is the mead of poetry that brings knowledge to whom drinks of it. After a long quest, Óđinn puts his life at risk in order to recover it and loses there a share of his honor because he has to break an ‘oath on the ring’ to achieve this goal, as explained in Hávamál stanza 110.

The present poem describes the moments just before Ragnarök (also referred at by ‘the worst winter’) and, in addition, it refers to myths little or not known so that its interpretation is delicate. For more details see my translation with accompanying notes in Hrafnagaldr.

Urđr seems here representing gods’ destiny. The poem suggests that Ragnarök occurs following a falsification of the örlög, written down by the Norns and thus by Urđr herself.

I suppose that the author of the poem wanted to refer to another magic force called sköp. Our whole mythology seems to indicate that, in fact, the universe’s and our gods’ örlög announces an unescapable disaster that will disrupt this universe. Nothing says, however, when nor how this catastrophe will take place. The supernatural entities that the poem calls verpir (I translate this word by “twisters” and Lassen by “unpredictable ones”) will, according to my interpretation, use their runes and, according to Lassen’s, modify Óđinn’s runes in order to obtain the magic ‘shapings’, the sköp, which will shape örlög in such a way that Ragnarök will take place tomorrow and will evolve according to Völuspá’s last stanzas.


Still to analyze : 


saga citations of örlög, Urđr and sköp etc.