Die Runenschrift, Ludv. F. A. Wimmer (aus dem Dänischen übersetzt von Dr. F. Holthausen)
Berlin, Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, 1887.
(pp. 275-288). The Old Norwegian rune-poem and the Icelandic Rune-rhyme.
(To page 180.)
[Note from YK: Today German ß is written ‘fs’ by Wimmer. ć’ represent the letter ć with an accent over it.
In order to avoid introducing images all over the text, I replaced the letter “o with a small tail»: by the inexact but easier to handle ö]
The mentioned Old Norwegian rune-poem, p. 180, was found, following O. Worm, in an old law-manuscript in Copenhagen University-library („Danica Literatura antiquissima “1636, p. 105; Aug. 2nd. 1651, p. 95). This manuscript, from which Worm published the poem, printed with W. Grimm, Über deutsche Runen, p. 246 ff. and together with extremely arbitrary corrections of the Corpus poëticum Boreale, II, Oxford 1883, P. 369 f.) was destroyed in the fire of the library in 1728. The manuscript (A) from Arne Magnusson hand, written probably between 1686-89, is found in the Copenhagen University- library ; according to this, P. A. Munch published the poem in „Kortfattet Fremstilling af the aeldste Nordiske Runeskrift “, Christ.. 1848, p. 7f., but unfortunately „with corrected spelling “and with an inaccurate changeover in a place. The other transcription (B), that is found in the King Library in Stockholm, comes from Jón Eggertsson and was probably written between 160–89), taken independently from Arne Magnusson. [Note from YK: this puzzles me a lot, I obtained a photocopy of a manuscript that is obviously what Wimmer calls „B“ from the Royal Library in Copenhagen. See an excerpt of it with rune „fé“, below]. From these transcriptions, B seems to have kept exactly all orthographic peculiarities of the manuscript, while A occasionally deviates in small things, (particularly it has throughout v for u where it is not vowel, except in uoesta 5a). On the basis of the cited transcriptions, Kr. Kĺlund has published a new edition of the poem given in „Smĺstykker, udgiven af samfund til udgivelse af gammel nordisk literatur“, Kbh. 1884, p. 1-16, to which were added, in „Smĺstykker etc “ Kbh. 1885, s. 100 ff., various different addenda due to S. Bugge, F. Jónsson and Björn Ólsen. Regarding the metric peculiarities, I refer particularly to Bugge remarks p. 103 5. Several remarks, that I got from F. Jónsson later, are quoted in the following under his name.
The poem, without doubt, dates from the end of the 12th century or the beginning of the 13th, and is, as the language (the alliterations) shows, of a Norwegian write. It consists of double-spaced verses interconnected by alliteration and by end-rhymes as well, with 6 syllables on each line, in the model of the following figure:
(refer to Sievers in Paul and Braunes, Beitr. X, s. 527).
Only stanza 15 lacks the end-rhyme and uses inner-rhyme instead. Each verse-line forms a sentence for itself, (with the only exceptions of stanza 4 and stanza 15).
Making use of the cited material, I give the poem with the Old Norwegian spelling, mainly preserved by the manuscript, again (refer particularly to „Gammel norsk Homiliebog “ [Old Norse book of Homilies], pub. by C. R. Unger, Christ. 1864, and E. Sievers, Tübingen 1886). The rune-names at the beginning of each stanza are drawn following the corresponding rune: the names enclosed in parentheses therefore come from me [Note of YK : „me“ is Wimmer, who added the names in parenthesis; they are not in the original poems, as, for example, shown by the scanning bellow for rune „fé“)]
(fé) vćldr frć'nda róge;
fóđesk ulfr í skóge.
(úr) er (is) af illu jarne;
opt loypr rćinn á hjarne.
1. Possessions cause dispute of the relatives; the wolf lives in the forest.
2. Cinders come from bad iron; often runs the elk on hard-frozen snow.
1a. frć'nda] frenda A B [YK’s note: this way of speaking says that the word written above as “frć'nda“ is written as frenda in manuscripts A and B] designates perhaps a more closed pronunciation of the vowel before nd (refer to ćinendr 12a).
2a. Jón Ólafssons witnesses that (quoted from Kĺs. 7 f) the word úr in Southern Iceland, takes the meaning “cinders, left-over of the smith”; refer to úrt járn “bad, impure iron”, ţáttr af Gull Asu-Ţórdi, (Sex sögu-ţśttir, edited by J. Ţorkelsson, Rkvik 1855, p. 77, and the footnotes to the Icelandic Rune-rhyme, verse. 16 b. –er af] metric adaptation.
(Ţurs) ) vćldr kvenna kvillu;
kátr vćrđr fár af illu
(óss) er flestra fćrđa
fōr, en skalpr er svćrđa.
(rćiđ) kvćđa rossom vćsta;
Reginn sló svćrđet bćzta.
3. Thurs causes woman’s sorrow (-sickness); few become glad of the bad (only rarely an accident makes somebody glad).
4. River mouth is the way of most departures, but the sheath is the one of the swords.
5. Riding, one says, is for horses the worst; Regin forged the best sword.
3a. kvillu] neither A nor B have more than the first letter of this word, that is completed with certainty by the rhyme. Relevant to the meaning, refer to isl. kvilli m. illness, bad thing, kvilla verb „to complain“ in Norwegian dialects. I take the word here in the same meaning as the present current kvilli (= the usual my in Old Norse) , in that in contrast to Bugge, I do not understand Ţurs as „giant “ but as name for the magic rune-drawing (refer to the isl. rhyme). This was exactly the call for sickness, drawn on a thin board (‚spjald’) or incised similarly and for instance put under the pillow of a woman; see Skírnismál v. 36: Ţurs rist ek ţér and Egils saga c. 75 – b. vćrdr A, ućrda B. The Old Norse Book of Homilies writes likewise vćrđa (but vera).
4a. ... fćrđa] er lćid (underlined with points) f. f. A, er leid f. f. B. – b. fōr ... svćrđa] en skalper er svćrda A, en skalper sućrda B. In a handwritten collection of the Edda - excerpts etc. from 680 (AM 738 4to), where also the rune-poem is quoted after Worm, the verse is as follows: ós er flestra ferda fōr enn skalpur er svćrda, what I consider as right, in that that fr is used with long syllable (refer to Sievers in Paul and Braunes Beitr. VIII, s. 54 f.). Instead of fōr B. Ólsen and Bugge read fćrill (metric adaptation).
5a. kvćđa] metric adaptation. –rossom] here and in ero 15b the manuscript uses o in the endings, but otherwise u, what I have retained, refer to the Old Norse Book of Homilies. b. Reginn | reghin A B, metric adaptation. –sló] Bugge; A B have only the first letters, skóp Munch, saud (refer to the Oxford dictionary: sjóda 2) B. Ólsen.
(kaun) er barna blvan;
bl gorver mann flvan
(hagall) er kaldastr korna;
Kristr skóp hćimenn forna
(nauđ) gerer nćppa koste;
noktan kćlr í froste.
(is) köllum brú brćiđa;
blindan ţarf at lćiđa.
6a. …. fōlvan] B. Ólsen (refer to the Icelandic rune-rhyme kaun er barna bōl); er bćggia barna A B. – b. mann] B. Ólsen (refer to bōl gjorir mik fölvan Landámabók s. 1526); naan A B. Bugge proposes:
kaun er bćggja barna
bōl; gorver ná (oder nán) fölvan.
That is: „Ulcer is accident for both children (= children of both sex, boys as well as girls); the dead becomes pale“. I however consider as impossible this explanation of bćggja barna.
7a. hagall] metric adaptation. That the rune-name is hagall here, not hagl, is shown by the adjective kaldastr. – b. hćimenn forna] refer to forna fold in Hymiskvida v. 24.
8a. gerer] metric adaptation or read gerr, (but the use of gorver in 6b speaks against it). Also the Old Norse Book of Homilies usually writes gera with e, not with ć.
9a. brú | brć A B. Worm and all followers (such as Munch, Kĺlund, Bugge) improves it to the form brú and understands brú brćda as „the wide bridge “. This opinion seems to me however doubtful; should not I refer to the expression of the saying , known from the Völsunga saga c. 1 : Breda fōnn ... kalla hverja fōnn, er mikil er?
[YK’s note: the citation is : „ ... at ţann skafl skyldi kalla Bređafönn heđan af, ok hafa menn nú ţat eptir síđan ok kalla svá hverja fönn, er mikil er.“, that is: „… that men should call that snow-drift Bredi's Drift from henceforth; and thereafter folk followed, so that they call in this way every drift that is large enough?”]. Wimmer hints at the possibility that brú brćda might mean : „Bredi's Drift“, i.e. „large avalanche“.
(ár) er gumna góđe;
get ek at örr var Fróđe
(sól) er landa ljóme;
lúti ek helgum dóme
(Týr) er ćinendr ása;
opt vćrđr smiđr at blása.
(bjarkan) er lavfgrǿnstr líma;
Loki bar flć’rđar tima.
10. (Good) year is luck to the men (a blessing for the people); I say that Frode was generous.
11. Sun is light of the land; I bow before the sacred.
12. Ty is one-handed among the Aesir; often has the smith to blow.
13. Birch branch is the foliage-greenest shoot; Locke brought success of the untruthfulness.
10a. gumna] gufna AT B, a spelling, as advocated by Bugge, that the writer has been from western Norway. –B. get ek] reads getk.
11b. lúti ek] reads lútik. –helgum] the two forms drawn from this word are regularly written in the Old Norse Book of Homilies with ć like in hćilagr, etc.
12a. ćinendr] = ćinhćndr (refer to afrendr and similarly „Fornnordisk forml. “, Lund 1874, , sect. 24, C e, anm., s. 33); ć has shown a more closed pronunciation before nd (refer to the remark to frć'na 1a).
13a. bjarkan er] ... an er metric adaptation, otherwise, read bjarkan'r. bjarkan seems to mean here in the Icelandic Rune-rhyme from the context „leafy birch-branch, birch-twig “ (from björk ‚birch). The word is neuter in the third grammatical treatise in the Snorra Edda (published by B. Ólsens s. 47), and there is no reason to understand it here as masculine; the adjective follows the gender after líma (from lími). b. Loki] metric adaptation. The manuscript uses i here as ending after k (refer to auki, hauki, mikil v14, reghin 5b, but roge, skoghe v. 1; also lúti 11b is probably founded on the following (e)k); otherwise e is enforced in the endings, with exception of fialli 15a and gerir 8a, where I have put an o (the last by analogy to gorver 6b; that A writes here –ir and B –er, is apparently a mistake as loke 13b while it is loki in B. The meaning is: Loke brought bad luck through his untruthfulness (timi as for instance ţokki is used in a good as well as in a bad meaning).
(mađr) er moldar auki;
mikil er grćip á hauki
(lögr) er, er fćllr ór fjalle
foss ; en gull ero nosser
(ýr) er vetrgrǿnstr víđa;
vant er, er brennr, at svíđa.
14. Man is increase of the dust; big is the claw “at” the hawk. .
15. Water is that, where (when) a waterfall from the mountain falls; but of gold are the jewels.
16. Yew is the winter-greenest tree; it is in the habit of singeing, where (when) it burns.
14. These and the following verse are rearranged not only from Worm but also from Munch. –b. mikil] metric adaptation.
15a. lögr er, reads lögr'r er] F. Jónsson, Wimmer; imagelogr er ţar er A B. In agreement with Bugge, Jónsson considers foss as the subject of the sentence („waterfall is the water, that from the mountain falls down“). Against that, I propose lögr as subject, on the basis of the word-position and the analogy with all other verses: „this is water, where (or when), a waterfall from the mountains falls down,“ ref. to 16b. - ero] metric adaptation, else read ro (ró). –Instead of the already used end-rhymes, this verse has inner-rhyme, (half-rhyme in the first, complete-rhyme in the second line).
16b. vant er (reads vant'r) er] Wimmer like in 15a; vant (uant B), er ţar er A B. –The rhyme vida ~ svida indicates that the vowel in the first word was becoming long, what proves for Bugge that the author was from the west-country (ref. to the remark in 10a).
There are some Icelandic Rune-rhymes that are in many points so closely related to the Norwegian rune-poem that their similarity is unmistakable, but in others they are very different. They are stored in different manuscripts in the Arnamgnaean collection in the university-library of Copenhagen, namely AM 687 d 4to, parchment-manuscript from the end of the 15 century, AM 461 12 mo, parchment-manuscript from the 16th century, AM 749 4to, paper-manuscript from the 17th century. Two rhymes, in essentially concurring forms, are coming from Jón Ólafsson the Older from Grunnavik in his manuscript „Runologia “, (AM 413 fol.; early Addit. 8 fol.) that was written originally in 1732, following the title-leaf, but in 1752 as written anew by the author and was increased by some addenda.
AM 687 gives the runes with their drawing, as in the manuscripts of the Norwegian rune-poem, omitting their names (these names are located in the manuscript elsewhere; see below) while AM 461gives the names, but not the drawings, both manuscripts keep the original sequence of the runes. AM 749 has the names as well as the drawings, but arranges the runes following the Latin letter ordering and add the later („dotted“) runes. We meet the same with J. Ólafssons’ first text, (s. 130-35), while the second one (s. 140 f.) follows the original order (however with lögr for madr) and includes only the 16 old runes.
Both texts show the rune-signs (the last ones in the form of „branch-runes“), and their names. It is particular to 687 that it adds, after the paraphrases for each rune, a Latin translation of their name and a Northern prince-naming with the initial letter of the name of the relevant rune. Furthermore, this manuscript contains on opposite side (the third) on the rune-rhymes (the third one), a Latin word with reason of the application of this word corresponding each individual rune-name. These Latin renderings are correct translations of the paraphrases in the rune-rhymes; we find all rune-names (with exception of madr), here in the ancient ordering and we can therefore include them in the rhymes.
Each stanza in the Runic-rhyme consists of 3 short lines, each one contains a paraphrase (‚kenning’) of the rune names. The two first lines are connected by alliteration to each other while the third one shows its own alliterations.
ok flćdar viti
ok grafseiđs gata.
ok skara ţverrir
ok hirđis hatr
1. Good (‘gold’), is the dispute of the relatives and the sea fires and the way of the „grave-fish “ (the snake).
2. Dust-rain („water “) is the clouds tears and the ice-rim dissolver and (object for) the shepherd's hate.
1b. flćđar v.] fyrđa gaman („the men’s joy “, 461, 749, JOb, Fofnis bani JOa. - c. grafseids] grafţvengs 461; grafseidr = grafvitnir, grafţengr (Lex. poët.).
2b. Opposed to Bugge, and in accordance with F. Jónsson, I take skara as gen. plur. of skör f., the edge of an icy surface (ref. skari m., „crusta glacialis, ice crust“ Bj. Haldorson). Ref. to the paraphrase isa aldrtregi of the sun 11c. –The Latin translation of umbre is of course a misunderstanding for imber (imbres).
ok kletta búi
ok varđrúnar verr.
(óss) er aldingautr
ok ásgarđs jöfurr
ok valhallar vísi..
(reiđ) er sitjandi sćla
ok snúđig ferđ
ok jórs erfiđi.
ok holdfúa hús.
3. ‚Turs’ is the women’s pain (nuisance) and the cliffs inhabitants and the giantess’ man.
4. ‚Os’ („the Ase“, Odin) the old creator and Asgard’s king and Valhalla’s prince.
5. Rides is cozy when seating and swift trip and effort of the horse.
6. Ulcer is the children accident and beating, and the house (the habitation) of the dead meat.
3a. I understand ţurs as of the magic rune stave as in the rune-poem, as opposed to b and c where his meaning is „giant“. –b. búi] 749 JO, íbúi 461, unreadable in 687. –c. varđrúnar v.] 749, JO, síđförull seggr 461; 687 seems surely to have an l before „rúnar “, but the letters before are extremely uncertain (baul – that is bōl-?).
4a. aldingautr ref. Vegtamskv. v. 2 und 13.
5a. sitjandi sćla] actually “sedentary happy condition” that is the comfort felt when sitting on the back of a horse. – c. jórs] for jós of the old language.
6b. bardagi] 687, 461, 749, JO a, I take in the meaning „beating, punishment “ (it can perhaps thought like for instance Job, who was crashed (w. for w. = beaten) with boils ). For bardagi, JO b has bardaga fōr what Kĺlund has accepted in the text (obviously, to get a paraphrase organized by twos, what I however don't consider as necessary), I don't understand it with Bugge as „a place where nuisance (pain) moves“ (thus fōr nom. sing. fem.) but as „tracks, marks the beating “ (fōr neutr. plur. nom. sing. from far, track, mark from something; for the plural refer to vássamlig verk 8c, úlfs leifar 12b). –flagella] only flag is clear in this word, what Bugge complements to „flag[mona], a slightly incorrect form for phlegmon [YK’ note: I kept this word which is very similar to the ON word. In fact, a ‘phlegmon’ is an obsolete word meaning an ulcer full of phlegm, or pus, that is a kind of boil.]“; however the manuscript without doubt shows flagella [YK’s note: in fact, the Latin word ‘flagellum’ (nom. plur. flagella) means whip, like English flagellum, but also flexible shoot; ON bardagi means beating, battle, calamity] which is the translation of bardagi, like in the Latin translations on the next page of the manuscript.
ok snáka sótt.
ok ţungr kostr
ok vássamlig verk.
ok unnar ţak
ok feigra manna fár.
7. Hail is cold grain and snow flurries and the snakes’ illness (annihilation).
8. Need (‚Servitude’) is sorrow of the maid and hard position and laborious work.
9. Ice is river-bark and roof (cover) of the wave and danger for the men whose death-hour is near.
8a. ţrá] here best in the meaning “aegritudo animi [YK’s note: Lat. sickness of the mind], maeror [YK’s note: Lat. mourning, grief], melancholy, gloom “) Bj. Haldorson. –b. ţungr kostr] 749, JO, ţvera erfidi 461, unreadable in 687. –The Latin translation opera corresponds only to the word verk.
9a. árbörkr] 461, 749, JO, unreadable in 687. –B. unnar ţak] 461, 749, JO b, unnar unreadable, ţak very indistinct in 687, unnar ţekja JO a. –c. . f. m. fár] feigs fár JO a, feigs manns forad 461, feigs forad 749, JO b; ref. to alt er feigs forad Fáfnismál v. 11. For this paraphrase of the ice ref. to Málsháttkvśdi v. 25: sjaldan hittisk feigs vök frorin.
(ár) er gumna góđi
ok gott sumar
ok algróinn akr.
(sól) er skýja skjöldr
ok skínandi röđull
ok ísa aldrtregi.
(Týr) er einhendr áss
ok úlfs leifar
ok hofa hilmir.
10. (Good) year is men’s luck and good summer and full-ripe field.
11. Sun is shield of the clouds and glowing radiation-shine and the ice-heaps murderer (destroyer).
12. Ty is the one-handed Ase and the relics of the wolf and the temple king.
10b. gott s.] 749, JO a, gott very uncertain, sumar unreadable in 687, glatt s. JO b, the letters of tt lost in 461. – c. algróinn a.] 749, JO, ok vel flest ţat er vill 461; 687 has dala (uncertain) dreyri, “wetness of the valleys“ that is rivers, also ár understood as nom. plur. of á ‘river, stream’.
11a. skýja skjöldr must be a paraphrase for the sun as being “the round heavenly-body,” therefore the same image is used as hvél ‘wheel’ for the “sun-disk” (749 and JO have instead the paraphrase ísa aldrtregi 11e hverfandi hvél), that the Latin translation associates to rota. The paraphrase skýja skjöldr is actually based on a confusion and is maybe evoked through a misunderstanding of Grímnismál v. 38. [YK’s note: this strophe reads: Svalinn heitir, / hann stendr sólu fyrir, / skjöldr, skínanda gođi; / björg ok brim / ek veit at brenna skulu, / ef hann fellr í frá. I.e., Svalin is called, / which stands before the sun, / the shield, shining deity / rocks and surf / must, I grant, be burnt, / would he fall from his place.”
12. In 687, the runes are and with the associated explanations changes. – b. úlfs leifar] “the wolf (the wolf Fenrir) relics”, because it ate of Tyr one hand only, and the remaining was left; the paraphrase is very much in use, and occurs also in later rimur. – c. hofa h.] This paraphrase is actually falsely transferred from Odin on Ty.
ok lítit tré
ok ungsamligr viđr.
ok moldar auki
ok skipa skreytir.
ok víđr ketill
ok glömmunga grund.
ok brotgjarnt járn
ok fífu fárbauti.
13. Birch-shoot is a foliage-rich branch and a small tree and a youthful wood.
13c. ungsamligr] should probably mean “the reason why green leaves have a youthful (fresh) look”; Bugge proposes vegsamligr “splendid”.
14a. = Hávamál v. 47 b.
15a. vellanda vatn] 687 (however vatn uncertain); all remaining text (461, 749, JO) have vellandis vimr (that is vimur) “forth-streaming flood”, that corresponds to the “from the mountain falling down waterfall” of the rune-poem (vimur = foss) and is therefore possibly the original. –b. víđr ketill] I assume that here to the hot sources in Iceland are alluded to, with their upwards-bouncing water-columns, their name (hverr) matching so well the meaning of a “kettle”.
16. Also the Icelandic (very young) rune-inscriptions use normally as sign for y; in the oldest of these inscriptions (the church-door of Valţjófstađr) seems to have instead the meaning of o (ĺrb. f. nord. oldk. 1882, s. 93 f.). – AM 461 omits completely this sign and its paraphrases, that here has two very different meanings “bow” and “bad iron” (ref. to the paraphrases for ár in 687; see the footnote 10 c). –a. bendr bogi] JO a, tvíbendr b. JO b (in 749 tuí is written above bendr), unreadable in 687. – b. brotgjarnt járn] óbrotgjarnt j. Kĺlund since he reads a somewhat uncertain sign o in 687 before brotgjarnts; however this is the usual abbreviation sign for ok (this confirms Bugge’s suggestion of brotgjarnt for óbrotgjarnt, which is also supported by the rhyme). This confirms ýr in the same meaning as here (“brittle iron”) and is also met in the expression kaldýr Merlínus spá (ref. to kaldór “ferrum fragile” Bj. Haldorson), and apparently stands in connection with úr “cinders”, úrt járn (see the rune-poem v. 2). Instead of brtog. járn 749 has bardaga gangr (“the giant of the fight”), JO b bardaga gagn (“the equipment of the fight”) – c. fífu f.] JO b “the giant of the arrow” paraphrase for “the bow” shooting an arrow, fenju fleygir (“sender of arrow”) 749; 687 shows an empty place for these paraphrases.
The Latin translations of the rune-names, appended to the last 9 lines from stanza 3 in AM 687, goes with dispersed abbreviations and with the usual Icelandic spelling as follows (I include the completely illegible in parentheses). [YK’s note: and I give in  the translations of the Latin and ON words. One translation only when Latin and ON are identical. All sentences are on the same type as the first one: “Gold (in Latin) gold (in ON), gold is fé (richness in ON), fé is a rune stave]
Aurum gull [gold], gull er fé, fé er rúnastafr. Ymber skúr [shower] , skúr er úr, úr er rúnastafr. || Fantasma er skrimsl [monster] , skrimsl er ţu(rs) , ţ(urs) er rúnastafr. Flumen straumr [stream], straumr er óss, || óss er rúnastafr. Iter [journey, way] vegr [way], vegr fōr, [fōr] (e)r reiđ, reiđ er rúnastafr. Wulnus [vulnus = wound] sár [wound], sár || er kaun, kaun er rúnastafr. (Niv)es er snjór [snow], snjór er hagl, hagall er rúnastafr. Flagella [whip, scourge] || er bardagi [beating, fight, scourge], bardagi er nauđ, nauđ er rúnastafr. (Fr)ig(us) er frost, frost er íss, íss er rúnastafr. || Estas er sumar, sumar er ár, ár er rúnastafr. Ignis [fire, passion] er eldr [fire], eldr er sól, sól er rúnastafr. || Jupiter er Ţórr, Ţórr er áss, áss er Týr, Týr er rúnastafr. Flos [blossom, youth] er blóm [blossom], blóm er viđr [tree, wood], viđr || er bjarkan, bjarkan er rúnastafr. Palus [swamp] er gormr [gor = half-digested content of the stomach, Gormr = Guđţorm = Guđorm = „admired God“], gormr er sjór [sea], sjór er lögr, || lögr er rúnastafr. Arcus er bogi, bogi er ýr, ýr er rúnastafr.
Therefore only the translations of fé, (úr,) reiđ and ýr are completely corresponding; flagella, translating kaun in the rhyme, stands here as translation of nauđ (the common concept is baradagi); likewise Jupiter is located at different places, rhyme as translation of óss in the rhymes, but here as translation of Týr, while óss is rendered by flumen, therefore the usual younger meaning, found also in the rune poem. This is the most essential and also the most interesting difference between both rhymes, no cause of this difference is known, to take more care here of the remaining deviations.
 Ymber, uncertain ybs in the handwriting, i. e. imber (ref. umbre in the rune-rhyme v. 2)
 ţurs or ţuss? The two (three) last letters in both places are completely unreadable.
 The two first letters uncertain.
 The second fōr is left out in the handwriting.
 wuln´ in the handwriting (however, n and the abbreviation-sign for us, uncertain).
 The whole word very uncertain (the first two letters and the abbreviation-sign for us, quite unreadable).
 The two first letters uncertain.